Carlton House Journal (Sask.) 1795-96 complete
Carlton House Journal (Sask.) 1796-97 complete
Carlton House Journal (Sask.) 1797-98 complete
A list of men who worked at Carlton House(Saskatchewan) in 1814.
John Peter Pruden
James Sandison Senior
James Sandison Junior
James Whitford Junior - from Paint Creek
John Ashburn - from Paint Creek
An average week in Nov. 1814
John Peter Pruden Carlton House Sask.
Jan. 21 1815
" Two Stone Indians and 4 Women with them arrived they came from the Moose Woods brought a little Provisions they were 7 nights on their way owing to its very bad walking thro the Snow"...
Jan. 31 1815
" Two Indians viz. George Sutherland and Long Legs arrived"...
Feb. 13 1815
..." sent James Spence & James Sandison to a Stone Indian Camp a little above the Elbow to Purchase 200 Buffalo Tongues if they have them."
Feb. 15 1815
..." returned without being able to get any"
Carlton House Sask. John Peter Pruden
Apr. 2 1815
" Sent James Slater & James Whitford Jun. to an Indian Tenting at the Woody Hill to employ him to take 15 fathoms of Birchrind for making two Small Canoes for the use of the House"
April 9 1815
"James Slater and James Whitford who went for Birchrind last Sunday returned and brought with them 17 fathoms of Birchrind"
Carlton House John Peter Pruden
Apr. 13 1815
..." Five Stone Indians were discovered in the bushes near the House watching an opportunity to Steal the Horses that was grazing in the plain. they made off with themselves immediately after they were discovered."
Carlton Hose Sask. John Peter Pruden
Apr. 18 1815
" The Stone Indians that arrived yesterday returned to their camp - Sent by one of them 1 Yard of Tobacco to be given their Chiefs to call a council among themselves concerning the 24 Horses stolen by them from the Company & their Servants at Paint Creek and to try to bring them back to us again - but they have little influence over their young Men so that I have but little hope of any of them being brought."...
Apr. 28 1815
..." This afternoon a band of Southard Indians 30 Men & 9 Women with them: all on Horse back arrived, they are Indians that traded at Paint Creek last Winter and their Motives for coming this way was to join the Natives of this Place to go to War with them. They brought nothing with them but 1 Swan Skin."
Carlton House John Peter Pruden
May 29 1815
" Men employed getting the Furs & Pemican down to the River.
In the afternoon Mr Bird embarked for York factory with 9 Boats & 7 Canoes, manned with 41 Men - and left us here 7 in Number only two of which are able to do the Duty of Working Men"
Carlton House Sask. JP Pruden
June 7 1815
" Magnus Spence & Andrew Spence and families arrived from Paint Creek on their way to the Colony"
June 12 1815
" Sent in search of Buffalo between the Rivers about 25 Miles above the house but found none, the small Deer in the plains are tolerable numerous"
" Men employed digging in the Garden & Transplanting 355 Cabbage Plants"
June 30 1815
" An Indian who accompanied Magnus Spence to show him the way to Red River arrived having returned 2 Days short of Fort Hibernia"
July 1 1815
" Received the Meat of half a Moose Deer from the hunter - Adam Mowatt & the women came home from raising Pine Bark. they have collect 700 pieces"
..." Sas cuttun Berries begin to get ripe an Indian brot about 2 Gall to day - the first this season. The insects have nearly eaten all our Cabbages & Turnips, owing I suppose to the dry season, its a kind of a very small Catterpillar & have not been troubled with any of them in former seasons"
Aug. 4 1815
" An Indian arrived from Paint Creek that left this place some time agoe, he Sent from Mr McFarlane 38 lbs of Tobacco - The Stone Indians Stole 3 horses from the people who are making hay & 2 of their Jackets - these rascals or some of the same tribes have been lurking about this Month past."
" Men employed as before. this day finished cutting Hay but it will take 2 Days more to get it put into a Stack. John E Harriott arrived from Paint Creek without bringing any of the Articles he went for they being short themselves of every thing"
..." To day most of our Horses were stolen from the Horse Tent. 10 in Number by three Stone Indians. They were met by an Indian I had employed to bring some meat from the Hunter & he took one from them and came to the House immeadiately to inform us, We pursued them as far as South Branch River but they having too long a start of us, we could not overtake them"
..." Sent to the horse Tent to bring home any horses that might not have fallen into the hands of the horse thieves - they returned in the Evening with 4 Horses and 2 Colts which were all that remained."
" Men employed in collecting fire wood. Indians begin to come in expecting the crafts to arrive from below"
" Men employed at different Jobs about the House. Mr Carswell arrived in a Boat from York Factory. he left 4 other Boats behind which will be here in a few days"
" Mr Holden one of the NW proprietors arrived to day in a Canoe from Fort William"
" The four Boats that Mr Carswell left behind arrived to day. Men employed bringing up Goods etc."
" Mr Carswell left this place with 5 Boats for the Upper Settlements and took all the men who were to Winter here with him to afsist up with the Boats
Mr Hughes of the NWC left this place also with 7 Canoes for the same quarter"
" This day finished taking up Potatoes in all 24 10? Gall kegs of Ladies Fingers & 69 Kegs of the common kind not 1/3 of the last years produce owing to dry Summer we have had
About 9 oClock AM 2 NWC Canoes arrived from Fort William manned with 7 men each - seemed to be lightly loaded chiefly Tobacco & About 1 oClock PM Mr Bird & son[George] arrived in a Boat from York Factory manned with 9 Men & a servant brought the Packet from England"
" Taylor employed at his businefs. The others Working in doors repairing a Chimney."
..." the Snow this morning was 16 Inches Deep. Men employed Plastering the Houses."
" Sent off 2 Men with Hunters & 4 Horses a trip on hunting between the rivers. About an hour after they returned having seen a good many buffalo on the North side of the River in sight from the house, they crofsed the River immeadiately to go & kill some of them. This? John Hourie with two Indian lads who had been taking care of a few horses arrived. left the horses about 12 Miles below the houses. The hunters arrived at dark they had killed 7 Buffalo Bulls."
" Sent off John Hourie with an Indian & 3 horses to Proceed down to Old Carlton House below the Mouth of the Forks. all hands employed fetching home meat & the hunters went on Hunting returned in the Evening they killed 16 Buffalo cows, 3 of which are small ones"
" The Hunters & their families & Tent went acrofs the River & three Men with them to collect & Stage Meat. We have now no Men at the House except the Cook James Sandison Sen. and a lone Man."...
..." Buffalo very numerous all round the House - even eating up our hay Stacks."
..." A Canoe belonging to the NWC arrived from Paint Creek by whom I received Letters etc. also Mr Bird sent down two Men belonging to this place. The Men that arrived from P.C. bring us the news of all the Slave tribes being combined and are intended to make this part of the Country the scit of war upon the Stone & Cree Indians. Killed from the House to day 16 Buffalo large and small."
..." Malcom Rosie, James Slater & Peter Whitford arrived from Paint Creek in a Small Boat. also some of the NWC Men arrived from the same place on horse Back."
..." The 3 Men who were Tenting with the Hunters came home having put the Meat of 40 Buffalo on the Stage"...
..." last night the River Froze over. Sent one Man to fetch the Meat of the Cow that was killed yesterday but returned without it the wolves having eat it. Men employed White washing the Houses. A Southard Indian arrived from Jack Lake all the Indians on that quarter are doing nothing."
..." 2 Stone Indian young Men arrived from the walking band who are Tenting on the North side of the River opposite the Eagle Hill where there is about 40 Tents of them"...
..." Seven Southard & 3 Stone Indians young Men arrived to get a supply of Tobacco & ammunition but brot nothing to purchase it with - They came from a place named the Springs"
..." We have had now About 180 Buffalo killed large & small Since the 23rd of October"
Nov. 25 1815 John Peter Pruden Carlton House(Saskatchewan)
"Men employed fetching home Meat, brot home 14 Buffalo. We have now got more than a sufficiency of Meat to serve us for the season. Since the 23rd of October we have had killed & brot home to the House 200 Buffalo by 7 Men"...
..." sent off an Indian young Man (Gau,sa,wap) to John Hourie who is waiting at the Mouth of the Branch for people to arrive from Cumberland House."
" two Men employed making a little Country soap. Taylor employed at his businefs the others getting firewood for themselves"
" Men at home fetching some white earth & after they came home they went & killed 2 buffalo"
..." 4 Stone Indians came to the NWC house 2 of them came from the Touchwood Hill & two from the Bloody Berry Hill"
" being Christmas the Men had a holiday. gave them a treat of Rum & a Dance in the Evening"
..." John Hourie that left this on the 25th October to wait for Gov. Semple with horses arrived with out having seen the Gov. or any other person from Cumberland House. he left the Meat of 4 Animals on a Stage for the use of any one that might come that way here after"
" Men employed hauling up the Ice from the River & making an Ice House"...
A list of Natives who had debt at Carlton house(Saskatchewan) in 1815. From the Accounts records. Reel number 1M434
Kus e cau goon e coot
Gau har ga
Gau a wass
Omoo sa bitch
Caw we tusk mait
Half Indian Boy
Misk ke nask
Oh ga han
Che he mian Ushinashis
Cau he my ha gosh
Jan. 3 1816
" Sent off 8 Men to the Woody Hill to bring home Birch wood to make sleds off"...
" The Men that went for wood for making Sleds came home brot 8 Birch Sticks
6 Beaver Hill Crees arrived, they had been following their Horses that the Stone Indians had Stolen but gave up their pursuit Short & came to the House"
..." Sent off John E Harriott & 4 Men with the Indians that arrived the 3rd Jan. to fetch what Furs & Provisions they have at their camp which is 4 days walk distant from this place"...
..." To? Indian lads sons of Eggines cum arrived for a supply of Anmmunition Tob. etc. they were 5 days on their Journey to the House - The Old Man & 2 Sons have 30 Beaver large & small"...
..." The party that went off to Indians the 7th Inst. arrived brought 3,838 Musquash & a few Beaver & a few other small Furs & 250 lbs of Beat Meat & Fat"...
Feb. 4 1816
" John E Harriott and the Men who went along with him the 23 ultimo to look for Indians arrived having been away 13 Days traveling thro deep Snow and bad weather and have only brot home 1 Drefs skin"
" Men not able to go for Meat to day on Account of the severity of the weather
In the Evening three Southard Indians arrived they came from the below the Stinking Lake. they have brot a few Furs which will pay but a very small part of their Debts. These are the Indians that John E Hariott was in search of for 13 Days"...
..." Men employed cutting out Pemican Bags & doing other Jobs in doors"...
" Men employed cutting up Ice hauling from the River & Making an Ice House in a Cellar in the Garden. The Indians that arrived the day before Yesterday went away - In the Evening a Stone Indian arrived with 2 Buffalo Robes & a Fox skin"
" Men employed fetching home wood for drying Meat with"...
" Two Men employed Thrashing Barley, the others Drying Meat & chopping up bones for making Fat with"...
" Two Men employed drying Meat, 2 Men cutting fire wood, 2 Thrashing Barley & 2 cleaning? Barley"...
" Men employed Beating & sifting pounded Meat & breaking up bones for making Fat & 1 man cutting wood"...
" Men employed making Pemican. 1 Stone Indian arrived also 4 South'd Indians. they brot a few Furs & a little Pounded Meat. Made 87 Bags of Pemican 80 lbs each"
" Made to day 53 bags of Pemican proportion of Fat 1/5 ? 4/5 ?"
March 20, 1816 John Peter Pruden Carlton House(Saskatchewan)
"The Snow is now so deep that the Indians run the Buffalo down on Snow Shoes & Kill them with Spears."
" Sent 6 Men to the Pines (which is about 8 Miles distant from the House) to cut down & collect some timber for building a small House with "...
..." Sent 2 Men to an Indian who is tenting at the Woody Hill to employ him to go with them in search of Birch rind for mending Canoes with. Sent 3 Men to fetch Pine wood home for Building. The other Man Snow blind & unable to do any thing"
..." the Produce in Barley this last Summer is 85 Bushels"
..." Sent 2 Men to the Pines to drefs Oars. The others fetching home fire wood in the forenoon afterwards beating dried Meat. one man drying Meat"...
..." The 2 Men that went off on the 25 Ultimo in search of Birch rind came home brot 35 fathoms of Birch rind"...
..." Men variously employed about the House & some Broaching Maple Trees as these are beginning to Run"...
..." 2 Men sawing Planks for flooring, 4 Men chopping Roofing Sticks, 1 Man Making Pounded Meat. the rest clearing away a place for a House to be built on. To day as the Indians were intoxicated one of them fired a Gun & Shot an Indian in his Knee and a little Boy of about 3 years old son to the said Indian had his left Cheek? off with the same shot, it was premeditately? done"
..." Agreed a Hunter for Summer named Sufsamin"
" 2 Men employed sawing Plank one Man making Beat Meat one Man unwell, others preparing 2 Beds to sow Cabbage seed etc. in and leavelling a piece of Ground to Build a House in"...
..." The others setting up Posts for a small House 20 feet square"...
..." There is now Camped on the Plantation 57 Tents of Southard Indians & 3 of Stone Indians"
" 2 Men employed Ploughing up Gardens the others Building a House. To day 13 Men start from the NWC House all on Horse Back bound for the Red River & I suppose are going against the Colonizers as last Spring they are all half breeds except two which are South'd Indians" [He lists the names but they are difficult to read] " Parts of the ground are covered with flowers, some Trees are beginning to show their leaves"...
" Men employed as yesterday finished planting Potatoes 20 Bushels of seed put in the ground yesterday & to day 10 Bush. of Ladies fingers & 10 Bush. of the common kind"
" Men employed Building & working in the Gardens sowed to day some Oats & Barley
Some Indians that have been Tenting at the House for some time past pitched off towards South Branch River & are going to join the Large War party who are Collecting at the Big Point of Woods about 40 Miles on a SE direction from this place, some other South'd Indians that were Tenting acrofs the River came to this side & 11 Tents of Stone Indians Pitched their Tents Acrofs the River - These are the last that is to come from that quarter. there not being an Indian of any description on the North side of the River between this place & Paint Creek. We have had on the Plantation within this fortnight 82 Tents of Southard Indians & 14 Tents of Stone Indians including those 11 Tents who are Tenting on the opposite of the River and can safely say have not brought 30 MB in Furs among the whole of them"
" Sent two Men with the Hunters acrofs ? on hunting all the Horses. 2 Men employed bringing home Stones for a Chimney, one Man building the Chimney. Taylor employed at his businefs, 2 Men plastering the House. The rest clearing & burning rubbish around the works"
..." In the Morning Mr Bird arrived from the Upper Settlements with 8 Boats & 7 Canoes. Men employed making preparations for going down"
" Men employed Making Pemican etc. 2 Boats set off for Cumberland House"
May 24 1816
" Men employed taking down to the River Furs & Pemican"
Oct.16 1816 James Bird, somewhere near Oxford House.
" At 1PM I embarked and proceeded on till 3PM when the wind once more obliged us to land near the first rocky point.
"About 12AM I met my Son James who was detained last May, a prisoner, by Mr Alexander McDonnell because he had said that if the North West Company made any Attack on the Settlement where he was, that he would himself kill three or four of the Canadian Half Breeds.
"George Sinclair and Germain Macheneux, sent by Mr.Sutherland from Swan River to inform me of a piece of Important News which he has heard there.
"According to this News (which is so strongly corroborated as to appear to have some foundation in truth) Lord Selkirk about the 20th of August last, took pofsefsion of Fort William, made seven proprietors, three Clerks and a great number of Canadians prisoners and prevented any Canoes of the North West Company proceeding to Red River.
"Two Half-Breeds, Alexander Fraser and Primo (who were made Prisoners but who succeeded in making their escape) brought an account of this event to Red River with a Report that Lord Selkirk had left Miles McDonnell Esq. with sixty soldiers to keep pofsefsion and was himself on his way with sixty more, and Men to work them, to Red River, at which place Alexander McDonnell had lately arrived and had distributed a Canoe load of Goods among the Half Breeds for their 'Meritorious' Exploits in the Months of May and June last.
"John Spence (a native) son of Magnus Spence was at Red River (to which place he had gone to fetch away his Father who remained there last spring) at the same time this alarming news was brought to McDonnell who as soon as pofsible reengaged all the Half Breeds and Canadians who were near him, added to them eighteen Bungees, which together amounted to sixty men and with this band of Savages set off, as he told Spence, to intercept Lord Selkirk and his party and take them prisoners or destroy them; or retake Fort William; but, said McDonnell If I should not be able to recover our Fort I will return and destroy all the Hudson's Bay Company Settlements without pity to those of any age or Sex that I may find at them, and don't let me catch you ( he said to Spence) at Upper Swan River for if I do I will have no mercy on you.
"McDonnell accordingly left Red River with his horrid band in two Canoes and one Boat with three Flags flying, singing war songs and uttering the most hideous Yells and Shrieks. such are the Allies and horrid Instruments which the North West Company have dared in defiance of all laws and the common feeling of human nature to employ for the destructon of their Countrymen and fellow subjects and to such a degree of brutality has the cruel policy of that Company reduced in one short year, many young Men (of the Halfbreeds) who before that period had conducted themselves with propriety and abhorred the Idea of murdering a white man, but who now as they were about to embark, said, with a mixture of boasting and contempt, in Spence's hearing, that they were going to kill some more english flesh for their Dogs which were hungary!! This they said with reference to a circumstance in itself sufficient to call forth the public indignation against Alexander McDonnell and the North West Company, which is, the Dogs, about the Forts of the Forks having dug or attempted to dig up the bodies of the Men who were so cruelly butchered last Spring."
James Bird at "Upper Nippoe"
" The Canadian Master of this place, Battoch, is father of the young Halfbreed who was killed in Red River. Having heard that the old Gentleman always disapproved of his Sons' joining in that affair and that he had reproved Mr. Hughes, even in the hearing of our people with all the bitternefs of parental grief, for having occaisoned the death of his Son, I sent for him with a view of ascertaining his real sentiments regarding that event and of the cause in which his son had fallen. He did not sit long before he adverted to the subject in Question loading Mefsers Hughes and Halden with the severest reproaches. It was THEM said the old Man with great warmth who deprived me of my Son; By flattering promises and artful insinuations they induced him for the first time in his life to disregard my advice and to act in direct opposition to my wishes; I never, continued he, would consent to his going to Red River because I believe the businefs he was to be engaged in to be both cruel and unjust, a sufficient proof of which was, the Northwest Proprietors themselves refraining from taking a part in it. Who was it, he exclaimed, that sent for my Son? Mr. Alexander McDonnell and Mr. Duncan Cameron I answered. it is on one of those if I ever see them, said he, that I will be revenged. I praised the old Gentlemans discernment and liberality and afsured him that the day is not far distant when he will have reason to congratulate himself for having acted with such regard to the duties of a civilized being and for having scorned to be made a wretched tool of the Northwest Company.
" He seemed pleased, said that it was true he had not the advantages of education but that he had sense enough to know right from wrong, and that he early formed a determination to commit no action that he thought unjust; and this determination I have always adhered to, said he, in spite of several solicitations from the Northwest Company to act otherwise; and for the truth of this, continued he, I may appeal to yourself. It is but just to Battoch to say that tho' he has always exerted himself for his employees with the greatest activity and the deepest interest I never heard of his having at any time acted in an unjustifiable manner.
" Here then I believe is a proof of certain Partners of the Northwest Company having, to serve their own cruel purposes, induced young Men to act in direct opposition to the will of their parents whom they have loaded with sorrow or involved in their guilt."
Carlton House Journal James Bird
January 8 1817
" I called in Thomas Costollo who gives the following account of what occured within his knowledge from the time he left Albany Factory in June last till he left the North West Company House at Queppelle in the latter end of October or beginning of November
Thomas Costollo being duly sworn deposith that on about the fifth of June 1816 he left Albany factory in company with Mr Owen Keveney, McCauley and several Men amongst whom were Cornelius Hoy, Thomas Seveny John Kennedy, John Corrigle, Patrick Cavener, John Tierney, Hugh Linklatter, David Saunders, and Joseph Brown and William Donald (who were going to settle in Red River) in a boat and two small Canoes, in which they had on board two young Cows and two young Bulls to go to Red River. Mr Keveney treated the Men on the way very harshly and in consequence when he arrived at Osnaburgh House, two men Viz. John Corrigle and Patrick Cavener deserted from Mr Keveny and concealed themselves in the woods. Mr Keveny pursued his Journey from Osnaburgh without his deserters but he had not proceeded far till they were brought to him, when Mr Keveny obliged every Man of his Crew to give them many severe blows with a large willow, Mr Keveny standing near during the operation with loaded Pistols in his hands and a sword by his side to enforce severe punishment on the delinquents. When the flogging was over the two men were hand-cuffed and obliged to row in the boat and do other work in that state (except when they were employed carrying over portages) till they proceeded on about twenty days Journey from Osnaburgh when Patrick Cavanier concealed himself in the woods on a carrying place and as he could not be found he was left there by Mr Keveny who continued his Journey with the boat and the rest of his crew till they came to Skibbue? Lake where they heard certain accounts of the destruction of the colony by the North West Company and the death of Govenor Semple.
this news terrified the whole crew and induced Brown and Donald to Exprefs to Mr Keveny their determination to return to Albany which Mr Keveny opposed, threatening Brown and forcibly taking from him his Nets which alone could procure him food for his subsistance on his return to Albany. he was therefore obliged to accompany Mr Keveny who the following night encamped on portage des Lisle in Winnipeg river where in the course of the night, Joseph Brown, William McDonald, Hugh Linklatter and David Saunders got on board two small Canoes, the property of Brown, and left Mr Keveny to return as deponent believes to Albany Factory. Mr Keveny with the men who still adhered to him pursued the deserters but they were not overtaken and Mr Keveny resumed his Journey towards Red River. The day after these men deserted a few Canoes of the North West Company of which a Mr Grant seemed to have the charge pafsed by Mr Keveny who was informed by Mr Grant that Lord Selkirk was on his way to Red River, but that his Lordship would be unable to reach his destination from a scarcity of provisions.
Mr Keveny and party still continued their Journey when one morning in the white River Mr Keveny ordered deponent to cut willows with which Seveny was severely beaten for having slept too long in the morning (Mr Keveny had before beaten Seveny and stabbed him slightly in the thigh with a Bayonet), The whole party afterwards proceeded on to the Bonnet Carrying place in Winnipeg River where ten of the North West Canoes pafsed them and encamped on a portage quite near to the Bonnet where Mr Keveny and party remained for the night. There in the evening, Mr Keveny perceived after the other men had done work, Hoy going over the carrying place and asked what he was going after, Hoy answered 'a Keg Sir' ( Hoy had let a keg fall and broken it and afraid to let Mr Keveny know what had happened intended to get the keg over in the dark without Mr Keveny seeing it) 'You rascal' replied Mr Keveny 'you never do your work in time' and he cried out to deponent Costollo 'mind you get willows ready in order that we may give Hoy a good beating to morrow which I have long intended for him'. Hoy heard what Mr Keveny said and in course of the night following, deserted and went to the Canadians who were encamped near Mr Keveny who with the men who remained with him again proceeded on till they came to a carrying place called the Silver Falls. The bank of this portage was high and the few men Mr Keveny now had were unable to take the Boat up it, tho they exerted all their strength and tried every method their ingenuity could suggest, the boat therefore remained about half way up the bank and Mr Keveny, seeing that he could not get further said to the deponent 'well I see I must remain here' and they all accordingly pitched their Tents.
In the evening Deponent and Kennedy were examining their Cloathes and going to put on clean shirts, when Mr Keveny called to Deponent saying 'Costollo what are you doing' Deponent answered ' we are going to put on clean shirts Sir' 'You lie you rascal' replied Mr Keveny ' I know that you are preparing to desert to the Canadians' deponent insisted on it that he had no such intentions and added that nothing lefs than even worse wages than he had yet received would induce him to leave the Hudson Bay Companys Service. some further altercations ensued and Mr Keveny struck deponent, still however he persisted in refusing to go away till Mr Keveny gave him, John Corrigle, John Kennedy and Seveny positive orders to go to the Canadians House at Point aux foutre to morrow, and ordered McCauley to server them out two days allowance of provisions for their Journey to the French Fort which was only about half a days Journey off. Deponent accompanied by Corrigle, Kennedy and Seveny fearing that Mr Keveny would inflict some severe punishment on them if they remained, set of the next morning and arrived at Point aux Foutre where they found Hoy, who had left them as before mentioned.
McCauley and Tierney remained with Mr Keveny on the carrying place at the Silver Falls. Deponent and party were well treated by the Canadians at point aux foutre and Mr Archibald McLelland frequently told them that if they wished to have any satisfaction of Mr Keveny they should soon obtain it as Mr Archibald Norman McLeod who is a Magistrate would soon arrive there. Mr McLeod arrived a few days afterward When Hoy, Seveny, Kennedy and Deponent were succefsively called before him and depositions (regarding the treatment they received from Mr Keveny) by Mr McLeod taken of all except deponent who was told by Mr McLeod that he had not time to take his. The following morning Mr McLeod sent for Deponent (who had been sworn in Constable at Albany) and one Reynard or Rainaird, Mr McLeod first spoke to deponent saying 'Costollo I have heard that you have been sworn Constable at Albany and you can therefore have no objections to go and arrest, in virtue of a lawful warrant that I will ifsue, McKeveny, who had used you and your companions so Shamefully.' 'Yes' Deponent answered 'I have objections, Mr Keveny is my Master and it would be a disgrace for me to take him in the distrefsed situation in which he now is'. 'Oh' replied McLeod 'you must not be backward for if the Half-breeds here know that you have still a regard for the English (meaning the Hudson Bay Company) they will not hesitate to take your life - they think no more' continued McLeod 'of the life of a man than they do of a pin' - Deponent still persisted in exprefsing an unwillingnefs to seize Mr Keveny. MrMcleod advised deponent to engage with the North West Company to which deponent answered that he could not as he had very lately signed a Contract to serve the Hudson Bay Company for three years. Oh that is nothing at all replied McLeod we will engage you and pay you well! and he again threatned deponent with the vengance of the Half-breed when deponent thought it would be but prudent for his safety to afsent to accompany another Constable to seize Mr Keveny and deponent was accordingly sworn in Constable by Mr Mcleod as was Rainard, a few minutes afterwards in presence of deponent. The morning deponent was sworn as Constable he, accompanied by Rainard, Primo, La Sarte, Hefse, Baptist, Michelle Martin, Francois Melville and another Halfbreed named Francois ( the six men last named are all Half-breeds) went according to their orders to seize Mr Keveny.
They arrived accordingly at Mr Kevenys Tent when Rainard tapped him on the shoulder saying he was his prisoner upon which Mr Keveny attempted to take his Gun but on of the half breeds seized Mr Keveny who then abused them all, which occaisioned Primo to attempt to shoot him but he was prevented. Mr Keveny soon submitted and was conveyed to point aux foutre. The half breeds who accompanied deponent plundered Mr Kevenys Tent of every thing that was loose and Mr Kevenys desk and papers were conveyed to Mr Archibald McLellan at Point aux Foutre. After Mr Keveny had been two days at point aux foutre Deponent and a half breed young man were sent by Mr Archibald McLellan with orders to inform McCauley that McLellan wished to speak to him at his house. While Deponent was at the carrying place with McCauley five Half breeds arrived there in a Canoe with Mr Keveny who there, in presence of Deponent, abused a good deal the Half breeds who had him in charge one of whom named La Sarte them put hand-cuffs on Mr Keveny and when he was Ironed put him again in the Canoe which set off towards Fort William. Not one of the Half breeds who had Mr Keveny in custody could either speak or understand English, so that he could not understand them or be understood by them. Soon after Mr Kevenys departure several Canadians sent by Mr Archibald McLellan arrived at the carrying place and they and deponent took Mr Kevenys Boat, the four Calves, and all other property belonging to the Hudson Bay Company which was there and proceeded with the whole to Point aux Foutre where it was delivered to Mr Archibald McLellan.
While Deponent remained at Point aux Foutre news was brought there that Lord Selkirk had taken pofsefsion of Fort William, and about a week after the arrival of this news Mr Alexander McDonnell accompanied by about thirty Halfbreeds and about twenty-two Seauteau Indians arrived at point aux foutre to go, as deponent understood, to meet Lord Selkirk who was supposed to be on his way to Red River.
But the Half-breeds would not go on this Expedition unlefs Mr Alexander McDonnell accompanied them which he would not do and the proposed expedition was dropped. Soon after this Mr Alexander McDonnell with nearly all his adherents left point aux foutre and proceeded to the Forks of Red River where they remained a few days. Whilst they were there deponent heard Seraphin Lemar call the Canadians and Half-breeds who were there together and ask them who would go to plunder Mr Fidler (who had charge of a post in Manitowappew? for the Hudson Bay Company) of his Goods. Several immediately volunteered to perform what was required of them, and a large party set off accordingly, among whom Deponent recollects the names of the following persons Viz. Seraphin Lemar, Francois Duchamp(both Canadians),Francois Duchamp Jun., Gros Tete, Pirish Peltier, Charles Peltier, Hefse, Roderick McKenzie, Alexander McKay, Afsinniboine Moostoos, and Primo all Halfbreeds, Angus McDonald, Belguard, and Chartier, three Canadians and three Seauteau Indians. After a few days the party returned with only a small quantity of Goods, and deponent understood that Mr Fidler had retired with the most of the property under his care to an Island where the Canadian party could not discover him. After these people returned, deponent heard Mr Alexander McDonnell say 'so the coward Fidler has run away but we will catch him yet and then the half breeds will pay him'.
About this time William Shaw a half-breed read a paper to deponent, which he, deponent, was told was drawn up by Alexander McDonnell by which the Half-breeds were informed that they had a right to plunder wherever they found it, the property of the Hudson Bay Company in retaliation for Lord Selkirk having captured Fort William.
During Deponents stay at the Forks he saw part of the Cloathes which Mr McKeveny was accustomed to wear on an Indian, which made deponent suspect that Mr Keveny was destroyed. and on making inquiries he, deponent, was told that Mr Keveny was stabbed in the breast with a sword by Reynard (who first apprehended him) and that a Half-breed put an end to his existance by shooting him through the head.
In the month of October (1816) Mr Alexander McDonnell accompanied by a large party of Half-breeds, a few Canadians and, deponent, Seveny, Hoy and Kennedy arrived at Queppelle. A short time after their arrival at that place Mr Alexander McDonnell set off to the Mifsoirie to make peace, as deponent was told, with the Mandal Indians in case Lord Selkirk should arrive in such force to render it necefsary for Alexander McDonnell and his band of afsafsins to seek a retreat to the United States. In Mr McDonnells absence deponent was urgent with Mr McLellan to let him go to the settlement of the Hudson Bay Company and Mr McLellan at length reluctantly allowed him and Thomas Seveny to depart from Queppelle (Kennedy and Hoy prefered to remain with the Canadians) Deponent and Seveny set off accordingly, and after travelling ten days (being unacquainted with the road) arrived at Fort Hibernia.
Deponent sayeth that while he was at Queppelle he heard Cuthbert Grant (the leader of the half-breeds) say that he would go with a party in course of the winter and plunder Fort Hibernia - Deponent further sayeth that while Mr Alexander McDonnell and his half-breeds and Indians remained as aforesaid at point aux foutre the four Calves brought from Albany were all killed, three of them were shot by Michelle Bourafsa (a half-breed) and the other was killed for Mr Alexander McDonnells table by his orders. Deponent also further sayeth that while he was at point aux foutre he saw the Canadians taking one brafs cannon lately belonging to the Colony to conceal it in the woods where he believes it was concealed.
(signed) Thomas Costollo
Sworn before me
Feb.25 1817 James Bird at Carlton House(Saskatchewan)
" James Bird Jun. accompanied by two or three Indians arrived from a large camp thirty Tents of Southward Indians who are tenting about thirty miles from hence. At this camp James Bird saw a Canadian and a Northwest interpreter called Nomme both from the South Branch House. Nomme had been informing the Indians that when the snow is very nearly thawed away Mefsers McLeod and Hughes with a number of Men are to Kill us or take us prisoners, and take pofsefsion of this House (and all the property in it) which the North West Company intend to occupy during the summer. where we are to be to totally excluded from the Red River etc. etc. Such are the threats those Scoundrels dare to hold out, but which would not deserve a moments consideration had not similar threatenings been realized last Spring in the dreadful events of Red River."
Carlton House Journal
Feb. 27 1817
" Mr Lewes and Pierre Matte arrived from Lefser Slave Lake and brought us the disagreeable intelligence of Mr Decoique with all his Men having been taken prisoner and the property that was under his care seized by Alexander Stewart of the North West Company.
Mr Lewes gives the following Account of this astonishing outrage.
About eight oClock in the evening of the second of December last Mr Francois Decoique, myself and the Little Pigeon, our interpreter, being then sitting by the fire in our House at Lefser Slave Lake, nine Canadians, all servants of the North West Company suddenly rushed into our room seized us all three (Viz. Francois Decoique, Myself and the Little Pigeon) and forcibly dragged us out of our House, at the Door of which I saw about eight armed Men among whom were Alexander Stewart a partner of the North West Company, Mitchell Flyne and Robert Henry two Clerks in the service of the North West Company drawn up in two files which I was made to pafs through several cocked Guns being pointed towards me on each side as I pafsed. When the three men who had seized me, Viz. Andrew Saint Querque, one du Chene, and one Longtin, had dragged me without the outer Gates of our House, Saint Querque took off his sash and tied my Hands, du Chene and Longtin holding me till Saint Querque had affected his purpose after which they pulled me away to the House of Alexander Stewart refusing, though I repeatedly requested them to allow me to put on my Coat and socks in consequence of which one of my Feet was severely frozen the night being cold and the distance from our House to Stewarts House being about half a mile. I was put into a room in Stewarts House with the Little Pigeon who was also dragged over by three Canadians and a guard placed over us during the night.
After I had been in Stewarts House about ten minutes Mr Francois Decoique was forcibly brought into the room where I was by several of Stewarts Men. Mr Decoique asked Alexander Stewart on what account or by what Authority he had taken us Prisoners to which Stewart answered 'I have seized You because I heard from some free Canadians and Indians that you intended to seize my House and Property' but soon after Stewart told us that we were made Prisoners by way of revenge for what happened in Red River last spring and indeed it is quite evident that our apprehension was determined on before Stewart arrived, in October last at Lefser Slave Lake as contrary to the custom of the North West Company Stewart after his arrival did not take any active Measure to procure furs or to prevent the Natives, most of whom were trading with us, giving us their furs and Provisions. The Day after I was taken Prisoner as above related Viz. on the third of December last, Alexander Stewart sent his Men with Horses and Sledges to our House and in course of the Day they brought over and delivered to Stewart all the Property of the Hudsons Bay Company which we had in our House and partly destroyed the Buildings - only five of our Men, Canadians, were at home when we were seized and these Alexander Stewart prevented from coming to our afsistance by Standing at the Door with his party of Armed Men and desiring them not to come out. Our Men who were absent at the time of our being seized gradually came to Stewarts House and they asked Mr Decoique what they were to do when he told them to live in their own House and receive Provisions from Stewart to whom they were Prisoners. Stewart refused to feed our Men unlefs they lived at his House, and he tried every means in his Power, but with little Succefs to induce the Men to desert and engage in the service of the North West Company. Alexander Stewart detained Mr Decoique myself and the Little Pigeon Prisoners till the ninth of December last when he told us that we might go whither we pleased. Mr Decoique chose to remain at Stewarts House, several of our Men dispersed in different parties to provide food for themselves. I went away with Antoine Desjarlais (a Native of this Country and a good Hunter) Pierre Matte and Joseph Francour we moved on gradually to Red Deer's Lake and from there to Moose Lake where we arrived on the fifteenth of February last and from whence I set off on the eighteenth of February following with Pierre Matte for the place where I arrived (as you know) on Friday last. Mr Decoique informed me that he was seized first by Charles Delorme, Stewarts guide, la Batte, a half breed, and one la Frinier, that when about half way between our house and Stewarts House he extricated himself from them and ran towards our House but being surrounded was retaken and forced into Stewarts House as I had been. Mr Decoique further informed me that when he broke away from the Men who first held him, Charles Delorme called out 'fire at him, fire at him' and that he saw one Appishahsish accordingly kneel down to take aim but a Canadian interposed and prevented his firing. Mr Decoique had his Feet and Ears frozen.
I declare the above to be tthe truth.
(signed) John Lewes."
James Bird Carlton House Sask.
Mar. 2 1817
" James Gaddy, McDonald and Magnus Spence arrived from Swan River"...
Carlton House Journal
March 3 1817
" Two Men arrived from the Nippoe with three rolls of Tobacco. John McDougald also and two Canadians arrived from Isle a la Crofse and delivered me the following Letter from Mr Mcleod.
Hoping this will come to your hands with lefs struggle than what I received from your Quarter.
I venture once more.
The manner that Dechamps and Party were taken with the Letters in their charge I refer you to my letter of the 14th Instant - It was my Justly suspecting it was a scheme of theirs to get hold of my Person that made me not comply with Thompsons request at first, but send off to inform you of what had taken place and to caution those who were coming from Edmonton. About ten miles from here the People I sent off on the morning Met Patt? Cunningham and the others remaining with the Packet and both Parties returned back here to gather but they scarcely had turned about when they met Ogden and six men, he and party returned to their Fort and when within hearing fired and alarmed their people they all turned out in a body and Mr Black at their head of which there is a list Enclosed. on seeing them turned out I immediately Turned also with a few that followed me and came to them upon the Lake but to my Grief found them between me and my People who were coming with the Letters - Black and Ogden advanced towards me and I towards them. I asked them what did they mean by his manouvers to day did they intend to begin the Butchering work again. If he did to give us Man for Man. he replied it was my fault by not complying with Mr Thompsons request. They both put the question to me if I would go and see Mr Thompson I answered in the negative they then returned to their main body or Party who were blockading our people who were coming with the Packet. our people made a motion to come on but were immediately surrounded and after a great deal of resistance and struggle our people were disarmed. on seeing my People thus used I ran to their aid and found them still struggling. Ogden attacked me with a cocked pistol. I immediately prepared mine and was just in the act of taken aim when he desisted and said he only wants to speak to me, at the same time he offered to seize my arms but I kept him off and told in French before all his Men him and I to decide the affair he and Black replied again and put the question to me if I would promise to go and see Mr Thompson to day. Seeing my People and Letters in their hands I consented to go on Condition they would restore their arms? to my Men and let them home to the Fort to which they agreed but they still kept Dechamp and Party in Confinement. Without waiting to open any of the Letters brought by the last Party I went to see Mr Thompson and with no expectation of coming back soon but I was resolved neither to open any letters in the Fort nor give any Goods whatever Might be the result. I was no sooner in his Fort than Thompson gave me the Letters and wished me to open them. I told him I would not in his Fort but I would take them with me and made a move to go off but I was immediately arrested. I then told him that he certainly must have formed a very silly opinion of me indeed to think I would devulge any Secrets intrusted to me. He found on examination that I had more to say against the North West Company then they had against me. he then proposed to bind? myself and Servants to the peace for a twelve? Month. I consented to bind myself only and that on Condition I should be justified in taking up arms in defence of self and property intrusted to my charge in case I should be attacked or insulted. To relate You all that pafsed will fill up a few more pages. I as well as McDougald were kept from noon 15th till 1 AM 17th Inst. during which time I can afsure you that they insisted hard to obtain goods as a security for my future conduct. and particularly Black finding at last they could not obtain the goods they all said they would follow Lord Selkirks plan. I put them to the Test. After we had agreed and settled for 1st Article in the Agreement the second was proposed finding they had all the men that Knew the road that way? in their pofsefsion as well as Mr Clarkes Letters in their hands and McDougald informing me at the same time that the News was sent Mr Clarke by Slave Lake I agreed not to send towards the North. Mr Thompson suggested to me privately if it was himself Matters would be much easier with me but that he was obliged to act as he did, and whither I would consent or not, not to send any letters that way. they were determined not to allow any to go. The third Day after I had sent off Mr Clarkes letters towards you the North West People who followed Dechamp from atthabasca arrived here by whom we learned that a North West Clerk with a strong party were sent after Dechamp but finding they could not overtake him they returned - And now at this place they are watching as close as ever they were so that it will be in vain to attempt sending this way until the Navagation - for the way they wrought at me to obtain the Goods I refer you to McDougald who was detained prisoner as well as me
On the event you will not approve of the arrangement I made with Mr Thompson you have only to call me from here and all is void and null. I can afsure you if I had not made such? Arrangements it would have cost Blood shed and property and I think their principle motive was to obtain Goods which they did not accomplish - Black and Ogden did not seem well pleased with the agreement. To day I was just on eve of setting off to speak to you in person but Black objected to my going at present. Say I was the only security they had for the agreement made between us.
I do not think it safe to bring any Pemican lower than Green Lake except what will be sent to Mr Clarke and what may serve me out. I likewise intend removing all the Goods from here before the North West comes out in the Spring. I think I shall be able to be at Cumberland House before my adversaries comes here in greater Numbers than they are.
I have made enquiry about getting the Pemican brought here by Perch? River which I am told it is impofsible as the river is not practicable.? but I rather doubt it as I have seen where it discharges itself into the Beaver River below Green Lake and it appears very large however I shall enqire more minutely about and if thought navagable with either large or small Canoes I shall send towards you very soon.
The North West seems to have a Claim against Mr Decoique for engaging their prior engaged Servants last Year so that it will be as well for him to go out your way than to come this way as I shall be off before he comes here. In fact we have to be on our guard for if the North West will hear no Confirmation of these reports in circulation we may rely on an attack. I think three or four of the Half breeds here will go and afsist in protecting the Pemican in the Spring.
I think I shall be able to get six Canoes made I am to send Marchard to Green Lake in a few days to begin to prepare Wood for them. You mentioned that our People does not gain any Ground at Green Lake which is owing in a great measure to mismanagement of our people in the first place their whole time is taing up with hauling of Provisions to so many uselefs invalids - where as they might have made a fall fishing some of the people that wintered there told me they used to put from 3 to 4000 Fish by in the Fall.
You justly accused me for engaging so many of these Sloths? I mean Freemen not even those who were here but likewise those brought from Red River. They are a set lazy, saucy, Proud, Indolent People before I received your Letters I had three months ago wrote to Ducharme to send Boorie about his Businefs - I can shew you Mr Logans recommendation and wishes to engage Boorie and Ducharm told me last fall that Boorie was worth half of his Men, Old Michel, Mr Clarke had engaed him before my arrival and Marchand I have made no final agreement with I merely kept him for the sake of making Canoes which if not done he is to receive no wages - Mr Logan mentioned in his last Letter hoping I had enagaed Boorie - There are so many recommendators and those so very officious that they are apt to lead any young Man astray.
In my present situation I am not able to judge how I may arrange for the summer. If time and Businefs will admit without? any detrement to the concern I shall endeavour to see you before the snow is off the Ground. You will please to let me know what wages I may give Patt. Cunningham. I am sure you cannot exceed his expectations. If he agrees fro another year he wishes to remain inland to be employed in searching for Indians etc. There are a great number of our Canadian Servants whose times are nearly expired. I suppose the Depot will be the best place to reengage them - It is a hard case to be involved in such troubles as we are but I hope it will soon terminate
I think it rather strange that those People who came to Mr Sutherland to carry Letters for the North West and now for their employers but still there is something appertaining to truth in it - whenever the navagation is open I shall send Dechamp andf the others that came from that Quarter to meet Mr Clarke which will enable m and my people to leran this sooner than I otherwise would.
To search for Indians the summer certainly is the best season while the main force of our opponents are away<.br> Mr Frobisher of the North West that hired the Indian to attack me in the going out, of which I am not in the least dread. I met a few of these Indians and found them remarkable kind but I make not doubt but Frobisher will urge them to do so.
It was purposely to attack us here that the North West Converted all their Officers in the English River. Say Frobisher from Lac La Ronge, Ogden from Green Lake and several of their Men from those parts besides what force they had here. Their Men were very unanimous. Mr Thompson tells me that the news brought has a very bad effect on his Men. If it was only the Masters we had to contend with it would not be a hard matter for their Bodies are not made of Iron more than ours. I wrote Mr Carswell to send if pofsible 40 or 50 bags Pemican to Beaver River as the conveyance you mentioned is not certain. I cannot committ to paper at present what I would wish. I principally send to inform you of the state of affairs here. I am still in hopes to get safe out with all Party in mean time Conclude with best respects
Your most obt. Servant
(signed) Jn McLeod"
Carlton House James Bird
April 16 1817
"An Indian who accompanied William Tate and Malcolm Rosie on the fourth Instant on a reconnoitering excursion towards Green Lake arrived - He relates that as he and his companions were pursuing their journey they saw within a days walk of Green Lake an Iroquoy who traded during the winter with Mr Ducharme and by whom they were informed that some of the Company's Servants had a few days before been at his Tent for furs and that Mr Ducharme was at that time of course undisturbed by the Canadians, This information induced Tate and party (contrary to instructions I had given them) to proceed in open day and on the open Lake towards Mr Ducharmes House. and the consequences that when they reached the middle of the Lake they were overtaken and surrounded by about twenty Canadians with Ogden at their head who conducted them prisoners to the North West Company House there. Tate and Rosie having been disarmed were soon sent off towards Isle a la Crofse escorted by two armed Canadians. After having been a few hours absent Tate and party returned to Green Lake accompanied by John McDonald and two more servants of the comapny, who, the Indian understood, had left Isle a la Crofse privately but meeting Tate etc.the whole five allowed themselves to be led prisoners by two Canadians to Ogdens House. The evening after McDonalds arrival at Green Lake, three armed men, two Half Breeds and one Canadian arrived in pursuit of him. John McDonald took an opportunity to whisper to the Indian that McLeod and all his people were prisoners at Isle a la Crofse and that it is the intention of the partners of the North West Company to take all our inland settlements and when the Navagation opens to proceed to York to capture that place also. Ogden confined the Indian three days and then allowed him to return to his Tent under a promise that he would not come to this place to acquaint us with what had happened."
April 26 1817 James Bird at Carlton House(Saskatchewan)
" A few Southward Indians arrived from the neighbourhood of the Jack Lake (where they and the Stone Indians are afsembled determined to await any attack that the Slave Indians may dare to make on them) These Indians inform us that a party of young Men actually intended to go and plunder the Canadians at Green Lake, but that they were difsuaded from carrying their design into execution by their old Men who said " You had better not interfere in the quarrels of the white people. You cannot know what party will ultimately prevail, should you afsist the weaker You will not fail to be long punished for such interference by the conquerors, whereas tho' the party you afsist should prevail, the Services You may have rendered it will soon be forgotten so that you may injure but cannot permanently benefit yourselves"; Five Young Men however left their Tents about the fifteenth instant to go and steal the Canadians Horses at lake a la Crofse. Some of the Indians above mentioned afsured me however that, if I would send two or three of the Officers of this place at their head, they would raise a party and take Ogden and his Men prisoners. I did not however think it prudent to accept of their offer at present from a consideration that such a step, even if attended with complete succefs, would not effectually reestablish our affairs, while the adoption of retaliative measures on our part would not fail to render the violent proceedings for the North West Company lefs striking lefs calculated to excite general indignation, and consequently more unlikely to draw forth speedily on the authors of them the punishment they so richly deserve."
Carlton House Journal
April 27 James Bird
" William Tate and Patrick Quin arrived from Isle a la Crofse and delivered the following Letter.
Isle a la Crofse 18th April 1817
" Yours of the 3rd Ultimo came to my hand the sixth day after it left you wherein you mentioned that the conduct of my opponents unjustifiable as it was would not bear a Comparison with Alexander Stewarts at Lefser Slave Lake but I think when you peruse the following lines you'll find it very little deficient and I am sorry to inform you that these depredations are not altogether Confined to this place and Lefser slave Lake. They have likewise disarmed Mr Clarke and party in Athabasca.
Conformed to your request I with two Men left here on the fifteenth of March with the intention of paying you a visit - I was followed by Samuel Black and four of his Men. we proceeded on untill we came to the South end of this Lake which is about eight miles from this fort and there we met lying in ambush eight more men under arms whom John Thompson had sent for the purpose of apprehending me, we were immediately seized and brought prisoners to Thompsons Fort where I and the other two men were kept in close confinement for fifteen days-
Sunday the sixteenth of March which was the next morning after I was taken about 4 AM Black with all his and Thompsons Men Broke into our Fort when he found all the People asleep and seized and disarmed them and returned to his Fort with our Arms. In a few hours after Black accompanied by Thompson returned to our Fort and entered into the house where in presence of and with desire of John Thompson Black broke open the warehouse Door and seized all the Hudsons Bay Companys property which I saw afterwards brought to Thompsons Fort and put into his ware-house -
Black left here on the eighteenth following with a party and on the night of the nineteenth he seized all our people at Green Lake and took pofsefsion of all the Hudson's Bay Company's property there, took all the people to this place, even the women and children who were not able to walk were dragged down here, Some of the Women and Children who were not able to keep up with Black and the Men were left along the Road and none of the Men were allowed to remain along with them till they were afterwards fetched and it is really cruel how they behaved here.
It is vain for me to attempt to describe what a disagreeable situation we are placed in, it is grieving to me to see so many as there are here of Men deprived of their liberty and of course of great lofs and detriment to their employers. They are prevented from going where they can be of service and perform their dutys - we are told that we are to be kept behind the north west people going out in the spring and that we are to be detained at some fishing Place till such time as the whole of the North West will get out first - for my own part I am informed that I shall be brought to some remote Quarter where I can bear no testimony against any person - Black told me some days ago that they are not done with seizures yet - I am informed they are determined upon going to York and seize all the Property their. As for the tyrant Black he sticks at nothing for he will not attempt to go down himself - they had it in agitation all the winter to have gone to your place and brought you to Green Lake. At the time I was allowed to join the rest of our people which was on the twenty ninth of March Thompson promised me before witnefses that none of us should be detained after the eighth of April, on the ninth John McDonald and two others went off to endeavour and get to your place, but no sooner Black missed them than he immediately made a search for them and not finding them about the house he sent some of his half-breeds after them who came up to them at Green Lake from whence they were brought back to this place. Whatever may be the consequence I am fully resolved not to lend them a single scripe of a Pen - They seem quite regardlefs of the laws of their Country and they most undoubtedly know that they act contrary to any thing contained in the English Constitution. They ever? confefs themselves that they have no room to complain of my conduct since I came here - I have not been hitherto commanded by any of my Superior officers in the Hudsons Bay Company service to do any illegal action nor shall their concern sustain the least injury on my account. If I have committed myself anyways let them (the North West) bring me before a Court of Justice and if found Guilty let me suffer accordingly. This I have already told them here.
Should there be nothing against them in this Quarter but the stopping of my sending in due time to you or Mr Carswell for Provisions, it is a serious affair that such a number of People as what there are here and with Mr Clarke should run the risk of being starved for the want of these provisions on which we all depend.
I have already advertized them before witnefses that the Hudsons Bay Company would not be answerable for any supplies they may give as they prevented us from providing for ourselves in due time - If it can be done it is most needful that Mr Carswell would send lefs or more Pemican say fifty or sixty bags to Cold Lake Portage. You cannot be too much upon your guard - with no hopes of seeing you - I conclude with best respects
Yr mo obt Servant
(signed) John McLeod
P.S. I have a great deal more to add but I must refer it till a future period."
... "William Tate says that Mefs Thompson and Black have at Isle a la Crofse about fifty-five Men, Canadians and Half-breeds, and that Ogden has about twenty-five Men at Green Lake. Mr John McLeod has about fifty-three Men."
April 27 1817 James Bird
" Three Indians arrived from Edmonton which they left about the third of April at which time the Canadians had made no attempt on that Settlement. These Indians hunted for Mr Hughes during the winter, but, about the first of April last they availed themselves of a favorable opportunity which offered to kill near Edmonton two young blackfeet Indians, and immediately afterwards decamped and fled to this place. This circumstance added to the mafsacres committed by the Southward Indians last Summer will certainly cause a very general War amongst the Indians of the plains during the present Summer and the consequence may be, if the Southward and Stone Indians stand their ground, that no white Men will be permitted to go higher up this River next fall then this place. An event which has been expected to take place these two or three Years past."
May 2 1817 James Bird
" A Southward Indian arrived from Jack Lake who informs us that a party of Stone Indian Horse Stealers lately arrived at his Tent from the Moose Hill where they (by their accounts) Met with Mr. Hallett and about seven Canadians conveying on Horses Goods, Furs etc. from Moose Lake to this River. one of whom they killed and the rest they robbed of all their property including their Clothes and Horses. Mr. Hallett they stripped naked and in that condition sent him back to his House at Moose Lake. Our informant adds that there is little room to doubt the truth of the above account as several of the Stone Indians had Handkerchiefs and other fineries on their heads which it is not probable that they could procure in any other way. This event has perhaps been in some measure occaisioned by the violent proceedings of the North West Company at Red River, Green Lake etc. The Indians are not unconcerned Spectators of the conduct of the North West Company towards us. many of those who are attached to us feel some inclination to revenge on our adversaries the wrongs we suffer from them, while the ease with which these have seized large Quantities of the Company's Goods seems to have produced in the minds of the Indians who adhere to them a desire to follow their example but all have hitherto been prevented from taking an active part in our difsentions by the fear of its leading to serious quarrels among themselves. in short should the present contention between the two Companies be of long duration there can be little reason to doubt that the southward indians will takea part in them, and when they have once tasted the sweets of plunder they will not fail again to satisfy their wants in the same easy way whenever favorable opportunitires occur. These Indians from long habit have become fond of visiting the Houses frequently and of living with white People on terms of reciprocal confidence and familiarity. but if they once generally commit any acts by which they feel that that confidence must be destroyed they will certainly become the most audacious and the most mischevious of all the Tribes that inhabit this part of the Country."
May 20 1817 James Bird
" Mr Lewes with five Men arrived in a large Canoe from Edmonton with the pleasing intelligence that we may expect Mr Carswell and all the Boats etc. of Edmonton to arrive here in a few days - This agreeable news is however accompanied by other of the most distrefsing nature, which is the death of Henry Hillier who was shot about the 19th of April last by a party of Horse Stealers.-
Mr Lewes gives the following account of that melancholy accident. He says that he became so lame on his way to Edmonton as to be under the necefsity of remaining in the plains (about fifty miles above Buckingham House) and of sending forwards two of the Men who accompanied him from this place to fetch a horse from Edmonton to carry him to that settlement. a few days after those men had left him Mr Lewes went from his hut to shoot at some Buffalo which were near - & during his absence, it appears, a party of Stone Indians (Horse Stealers) killed poor Hillier, and plundered the hut of every thing that was in it including Letters & other papers that I had sent to Mr Carswell. Pierre Matte was at the hut with Hillier but perceiving the Stone Indians coming he threw himself into a Bush where he lay, concealed & from thence saw the Death of his companion. After shooting at the Buffalo Mr Lewes returned to his hut which he soon found had been robbed, & not finding his men there he ran Calling them as he went to the top of a little hill where he saw four Stone Indians who approached him but on his presenting his Gun at them they rode off - He again returned towards the hut in search of his men but not finding them he took the Road & set off alone in the direction of Edmonton - At Eight Oclock in the evening he put up, and about two hours afterwards was joined by Pierre Matte and informed of what had happened - The following morning they together pursued their Journey but were so very unfortunate as to meet with another party of Horse Stealers, consisting of about twenty-five Men, by whom they were Robbed of every thing they had except their Shirt & trowsers and in that half naked state left without anything to make a fire with, without any thing to eat, And , at three days Journey distant from Edmonton fortunately however for them they were soon overtaken by three Canadians who furnished them with food & Blankets as well as fire - The two Men Mr Lewes sent off before him arrived safe at Edmonton.
It is the unfortunate and shocking occurences that I have just related, which gave birth to the information received & which I have mentioned in full in this Journal under Date the Second of May for Mr Hallett has not been stripped nor has any Canadian been lately killed, though two were robbed of twelve Horses and completely stripped by a party of the same Indians who killed poor Hillier - Mr Lewes resembles Mr Hallett sufficiently to be taken for him by persons not intimately acquainted with him & Hillier was drefsed like a Canadian. It must not however be understood from this that if Mr Lewes had been known, he or his men would have escaped unhurt, for the Stone Indians are now become so numerous & daring that they often ill treat all without distinction, who are so unfortunate as to meet with them in the plaiins, And there is every reason to suppose that if measures cannot soon be taken will make these Indians put their dependance on us, it will be impofsible to convey Goods in safety higher up this river than this place. Last fall a party of this same restlefs tribe Robbed a party of Canadians who were conveying Goods on HorseBack to Moose Lake of twelve Horses & a considerable quantity of Goods & shot one of the men through the hand -
The Murder of the unfortunate Hillier was an act of the most wanton cruelty as he was surrounded by about ten Stone Indians and not having a Gun in his hand could make no serious resistance by the account of Matte, who sawall that pafsed, Hilliers death was immediately occaisioned by his persisting to hold a handsome Canadian Belt (the property of Mr Lewes) which a Stone Indian seized & in vain tried to take it from him by mere strength.
Sent off the young half breed I had called up here from Cumberland to convey to that place in the Canoe that arrived this morning, Canada, one of Mr Decoigne's Men who is in a deplorable state with the venereal disease in hopes that Mr Todd may be able to render him some afsistance."
May 28 1817
" Embarked for Cumberland with all the boats etc. and the trade of Carlton & Edmonton, the quantity of Pemican procured in this River amounts to no more than 365 Bags of 80 lbs each of Pemican and about 1200 lbs of loose fat which is about 100 Bags of Pemican lefs than were procured last year - Afsured that a unusual quantity of provisions will be required this present summer and there being a prospect that a considerable quantity may be oprocured at Carlton early enough to be of considerable service. I have left Mr Pruden to pafs the summer at that place although there is a considerable risk of his being visited & perhaps attacked by war parties of Slave Indians, on which account more men are left with him than usual - Mr. Pruden now has with him Mr. Whitford, James Sandison Sen., Robert Sandison, Richard Colen, James Spence, Edward Simmons, Oman Norquay, George Rofs & Mr. John Harriott"
Carlton House (Sask.)
May 22 1818
" left here to pass the summer, Mefs J.E. Hariott & George Flett, Donald MacDonald, Angus McLeod, James Whiteford, James Johnson, Robert Malcolm, Donald McMillin?, William Stanger & Andrew Loutit."
Carlton House Sask.
Oct. 16 1818
" An Indian young Man arrived here this evening & informed us that he found an Old Woman that had been left being sick & not able to travel with her party she had nothing to eat no fire & not able to fetch Water for herself to drink he had given her some Water but had no materials to make her a fire. I persuaded another young Indian that was at the House to go along with my Son to take her some provisions & make a fire for her & collect a quantity of wood to leave by her Tomorrow a Tent of Indians will pitch that way & I shall do my best to prevail on them to take the Old Woman a long with them until they overtake her party She had been left by 3 nights ago."
Carlton House Sask.
Apr. 10 1819
..." As 2 of the Men were fetching wood to day they were attacked by a Stone Indian who wanted to steal the Horses from them but they succeeded in taking his Arms consisting of his Bow & 2 Arrows & loaded Gun from him which they brought to the House he making the best of his way."
Apr. 15 1819
" A band of about 100 Stone Indians Men women & Children came in to Trade Obliged to keep a Watch of 2 Men during the night as the? Indians were sleeping in every house in the Fort."
"Report of Carlton District from the 2nd of May 1818 to May 1819
1818 May the 27th Embarked and left behind to pafs the Summer Mr Jn Edward Harriott in charge, Geo Flett afsistant Trader and eight Men Viz. Donald McDonald, Angus McLeod, Andrew Loutit, Robert Malcom, William Stanger, Donald McMillan, James Whitford and James Johnson Sen. The reason for leaving so many Men this Summer than the Summer preceeding was on Account of Danger being Apprehended from the Hostile Indians we have to deal with and at the same time they being at War with the Indians who Trade at Edmonton District makes it doubly dangerous. We put the Fort in as good a State of Defence as time and means would admit before we left it. but after all it was far from being what it ought to be in such a part of the Country as this; Strict Watch was kept through the Summer every Night and often in the Day. Short after we left the place they were alarmed by a War party of the Fall Indians having Killed a Stone Indian Boy and wounded another about 25 Miles from the House at a place called Bloody berry Hill. And a little time after that another War party fell in with three Cree Indians as they were hunting which they Killed. this took place on the south side of South Branch River and about 50 Miles to the SE of the House. they often got many other alarms through the Summer but nothing took place of consequence till after our arrival in the beginning of Sept. when the Blackfeet Indians and other Tribes their Allies Attacked the Indians of this place again in two Places? and Killed 20 Men & Boys, all of the Stone Indian Tribes. Three Cree Indians got wounded, 2 Severely 1 slightly, of the Blackfeet Party 5 got Killed - The Indians of this place now finding themselves much harrafsed by their enemies they fled in all directions the Cree Indians to the thick Woods and the Stone Indians towards Red River - No Provisions were procured through the Summer or Trade of any kind except a few Moose skins.
State of the Post
The Houses are in a most ruinous state their being only one small House of 30 by 20 which is any way sufficient in the lower parts of which the Master resides and in the Garret the Goods are kept. the rest of the buildings are tumbling to pieces; I have had two of the Houses taken down & rebuilt in a temporary way and a little House was built in Summer for a Blacksmith Shop. The Stockades that surround the buildings are very low and in a decayed State. the cause of the Fort being in this Condition can be attributed to nothing? else? than the number of Men left here being inadequate to the businefs required to be done and the Indians who will not allow us to keep a Sufficient number of Horses to enable us to get Timber home, and which there are none fit for building nearer than 6 or 8 Miles distant and which could be easily brought providing we had the means, as the Country is level and good ground for Wheel Carriages to run on. The State of this part of the Country at present, requires a Strong and well manned Fort as the Indians are becoming more daring every Year, and it is expected that they will ere long attempt to take the Fort. In putting this Post in a posture of Defence it would require an additional number of Men for a Year or two and some of these Men ought to be acquainted with building. There is no convenient place either Above or below (near) so as to induce us to shift our situation and to go too far below would be detrimental with regard to getting Meat as the Buffalo seldom go below this place and would be more inconvenient for the Provision Trade which is the Staple Commodity at this Post
Their was About 6 Acres of Ground sowed & planted this spring but the drynefs of the first part of the Summer prevented the greater part of the seed from springing; in the middle of the Summer the rains began to be prevalent and seeds that had laid on the ground for a Month & a half began to spring but had not time to come to perfection so that, that part of the seed that came up soon after it was sown, was smothered by that, that came up after and which in a manner spoiled the whole, We barely got sufficient of Wheat, Barley & Oats that would suffice for seed another Year. Potatoes were much hurt by a severe frost, we got about 40 Bushels but they were very small & watery. All other small seeds were entirely burnt up with the drought. the soil is very fine and I am convinced that every seed committed to the ground would come to good perfection if the Months of May and June were productive of a few good showers of rain.- Much more ground might be cultivated if required as the Point the House stands on, I suppose 150 Acres might be ploughed up without having any obstruction from Woods or any thing else, but we labour under the disadvantage of the Indians stealing the Produce when ever they come in large bands to the House & which we cannot prevent -
Of The Officers and Men
I have to recommend Mr Jn Edward Harriott is a very promising and interested young Man well acquainted in the way of Trade; Understands and speaks the Cree Language fluently and much beloved by the Natives, of a good Temper & very obedient to his Superiors
Mr Pinsonant a young Man a Clerk from Montreal last Summer also deserves my best recommendation. The generallity of my Men have been very disobedient and Obstinant and little work done by them through the Winter although much was required the character of each shall be specified in the Account Book.
Of The Indians
The Indians that we deal with at this place are of two Nations each having a Language of their own, called the Southern Indians or Crees the other are the Stone Indians, and with the exception of a very few individuals both these Tribes are a set of Thieves & cheats. they are also very indolent. No valuable Trade got from any one of them and a very chance one have paid their Debt altho trusted to a very trifling amount, On account of their being obliged to fly their Country by their enemies in the Fall, they did nothing but move about in search of food and which they had a great deal of difficulty to procure a sufficiency to subsist on, till they hearing of the Buffalo being very numerous in the vicinity of this place in January; The Stone Indians who went towards Red River in the Fall came back and the Crees also came out of the Woods and commenced Pounding the Buffalo and made a good deal of dried Provisions, and which as enabled us to get our usual quantity of that Article, Furs that are of Value are very scarce About this place Beaver are almost extinct other small Furs that are taken in the Woods such as Martens, Fishers, Cats etc. are also very scarce; but neverthelefs if the Indians would exert themselves they would kill much more than they do.- Wolves are very numerous and Foxes are tolerably so but as we do not take Wolves, the Indians does not strive to Kill foxes either. Were the Wolves of a sufficient value to encourage their killing we would get a greater number of Foxes than we do at Present. With respect to the Division of the Indians between the NW Co. Post and ours The Crees are nearly equally divided and with the Stone Indians this Year I think we have the advantage
Of the NWt Post
It is impofsible for me to state to any Certainty the Amount of Furs procured by them at their post, as they keep this to themselves but I am confident this Year that they will not make more than 8 packs of all kind of Fur, a Pack is considered from 80 to 90 lbs weight, and the provisions procured by them this Winter I should suppose would not exceed 200 Bags of Pemican of 90 lbs each but they had a Stock remaining from last year (say 50 or 60 Bags); Mr Teries is the person in charge, Mr Fisher Clerk, Battosh occaisionally Master at an Outpost, Mr Rocque Stone Indian Interpreter, Jerome Cree Interpreter, Paranto Guide and 31 Men the greater part of these Men have families and are Old Standers at this place; The number of Men, Women & Children they agree to provide food for Amount to upwards of 140 Souls
Of the Trade
Furs procured at this place will be considerably lefs than last Year owing to the Indians being drove of their usual hunting Grounds by the enemy, and some of them say there are no Furs to be found. Provisions if we should not get quite so much as last year is owing to none having been procured in the Summer. We have no Outpost as last Year, nor do I know of any Place that one could be established to be of any advantage; The Only Method I know off that might augment the Trade of this District for one or two Years, and which I think might be attempted with Succefs if properly Comducted.- I have been Often informed by Indians, that when on their War excurtions they pafs a place where there are great Quantities of Beaver in a part of the Country no Indians resort, This Place I am told is 20 Days moderate march from this, through a plain Country and in a Southerly direction Only one large River to Crofs which is the South Branch where the Beaver are found are a number of Small Rivers with steepish Banks whose Waters empty itself into the Missouri River.-
In attempting this expedition It would require an Able Officer and 8 or 10 good Men and to Collect from 20 to 30 of our Indians such as would leave their families or such has only had Wives without children; It's my Opinion they would have no Objection in going in this Manner and only to remain to Work 2 or 3 Months and as the party would be strong they would not apprehend any Danger from their Enemies.but as far as I can learn their is little fear to be apprehended. If this Plan is approved off It would be necefsary to have 20 Horses, Saddles & 40 to 50 Steel Traps and some flat Ice Chifsels all in readinefs to leave this about the 25 August or 1st September and ought to be carried into execution as Secret as pofsible to prevent our opponents knowledge as late as Pofsible and then if they did find out our intentions they in all probability would not have the means of following. They might be back about the Month of January.
28th May 1819
To William Williams Esq.
Governor in Chief Ruperts Land"
Carlton House Sask.
May 4 1821
" sent off John Wishart Andrew Loutit and two Indians with the Large Boat to go in search of Mr. Harriott and party who are collecting Meat opposite the Eagle Hills. Two Men ploughing and Harrowing sowed 3 1/2 Bushels of Oats"
May 5 1821
" sowed 1 3/4 Bushels of Oats and 1 1/2 Bushels wheat - Indians still tenting at the House and are divided in opinions wheather they shall pitch towards the Touch wood Hills or a pitch up to the Eagle Hill to pafs the summer there is now between 30 and 40 tents at the House and on the opposite side of the River. Cabbage plants made their appearance above ground."
May 6 1821
" The Indians that were tenting on the opposite side of the River Came acrofs and are now all agreed to go up to the Eagle Hills to pafs the Summer - Purchased 5 Horses and some leather Tents from them for Rum - JE Harriott and the Hunters arrived they left the Boat at the Eagle Hill creek to come down with the meat of 6 Bulls that being all the Buffalo they could find."
Carlton House Sask.
May 18 1821
" Men employed at the Gardens planted in ab. 23 Bush. of Potatoes The Indians that pitched away from here the 7 inst. arrived at the NWC House last night part of them were attacked by a small party of Slave Indians and 2 got wounded. they are now going down in the woods to pafs the summer - some Canadians (freemen) arrived from Edmonton House say they saw a very large war party of Slave Indians coming down towards this place. Leaves out on the Poplar trees."
Carlton House Sask.
May 19 1821
" Account of Ground in cultivation at Carlton district Garden attached to the Fort containing,
5270 square yards in Potatoes
750 square yards in Wheat
4914 square yards in Barley
Garden on the SW wing of the Fort with a open space of 40 yds containing
1860 square yards of Potatoes
6690 in Wheat
5743 in Oats
Garden 300 yds from the Fort"..."containing
4536 square yards in wheat
Garden on the N wing of the Fort containing
1484 square yards in wheat
1856 in Barley
3294 unsown or planted for kitchen stuff such as Turnips, cabbage, Peas, onions, carrots, Raddishs"
Carlton House Sask.
Nov. 19 1821
" Sent 6 Men to the south branch River to saw Birch wood for 40 Sleds 20 prs of snow shoes and some wood for Gun Stocks. Sent 2 men and 5 Horses to the woody Hills for Meat. The rest of the men employed about Mr. Hallets House and their own. Four Stone Indians arrived from the Moose woods brought a few Badger Skins. they say that the Buffalo are coming down but they are still at too great a distance to go to hunt them."
Carlton House Sask.
Nov. 28 1821
" About 3 Oclock PM Gerome who was taken ill lately died. he has been many years in the service of the NW Company as interpreter for the crees and I should suppose he must be upwards of 80 years of age."
Carlton House Sask.
Dec. 12 1821
" all the Stone Indians went away early this morning and took with them 5 Dogs which the men had purchased from them yesterday. these Rascals will not leave off stealing all that I can say to them threats are of no avail although there is but one House for them to get their supplies." [ after the merger of the HBC and NWC]
Carlton House Sask. Journal
May 10 1822
" after dark 4 Stone Indians arrived in a most pitifull condition They having been attacked by a war party of Slave Indians at the Moose woods when 9 of them were killed and 3 wounded, they were obliged to run and leave their tents Horses and all they had. it is 10 days since it happened and they have been starving ever since. there was 13 tents of them when they were attacked."
Carlton House Sask.
July 20 1822
" The freemen traded 600 lbs Pemican 180 lbs Fat 300 lbs of Dried Meat. The provisions which Battosh sent in were not traded as he demanded 9 skins for a bag of Pemican and dried meat at the rate of 10 lbs per skin his price was refused. The other freemen give their provisions at the usual value 15 lbs of Pemican per skin & 18 lbs of Dried Meat per skin"
Carlton House Sask.
Aug, 23 1822
" Parenteau & his son, Battosh Jun. Bonhomme Samant Gerome with P. Hallet who was sent to collect the freemen arrived at the Fort."...