This is a virtually complete transcription of Philip Turnors' Journey up the Port Nelson River by Alex Nicol

[The commas belong to the writer the periods are mine.]



" Journal of a Journey from York Factory up Port Nelson River commonly called the North River by Philip Turnor"

1792
" Mr Colen having exprefsed a desire of sending up to Chatham House a Canoe with some Brandy as he had already sent a good supply of other goods by the Indians but could not find Men and as I had a desire of ? the lower part of that river again I immediately promised him to man him a Canoe the next day out of the Men who had just come from the Northward with me and accordingly instantly engaged Hugh Lisk my former Steersman, Malcom Grot who had been head or Bowsman to Mr Malcom Rofs and Peter Brown who had been a middle man in my Canoe and I advised Mr Colen to Oblige those men who were waiting for the Ship under pretence of returning to England likewise but he wished Mr Tomison gone first he then found much difficulty in geting them to go ? Linklighter pofsitively refused unlefs he was paid Forty Shillings for the trip some said Chatham House Men might have made a second trip and been nearly down again by this time but that was only a Specimen of their intermedling with everything that is to be done. I understand its a rule for the Men up the Sas katch-a-wan river to hold a Council upon every dot and consequence of the Masters conduct and take care he shall hear it. if the Master acts contrary to their opinion and if the Masters scheme prove right they then agree that any body else could have done that but if he should fail in his scheme they knew it would be so, it never? originated with the Men. In an other place I shall endeavour to trace it"

July 31 1792
" Tuesday though several days later than I wished or even think their was occaifsion for we left York Factory to proceed to Chatham House. At 1 1/2 PM I left York Factory my own Canoe being maned by Hugh Lisk a good Steersman and excellent Servant James Johnson an invalid as bowsman & Peter Brown an Able useful good man as middle man in the other Canoe Edward Wishart, Will'm Flett Sen. and Andrew Codagile? [Corrigal?] all Steersmen the two former of which are Capital hands. though my Canoe so weakly maned We took above four Hundred Weight more than the other Canoe each Canoe had an Indian lad but unacquainted with large Canoes went round the point of Marsh and went about 7 miles up the port Nelson River and put up at 7 1/2 PM Wind variable Westerly flying clouds"

Aug. 1 1792
" Wednesday at 7.10 AM got underway which was as soon as the tide would answer and at 9 1/2 AM had crofsed over to the North Shore about 2 miles below Flamborough head and began to track in deep water the banks very high but not bad walking along the shore. a bout the head of the Seal Islands found it shoal for 4 miles but a boat would pafs very well most part of it with a long line and set up the other part with Poles continued on untill 8 1/4 PM and then put up having gone about 42 miles this day the distance may seem great but we had great help from the tide in the morning Wind WSW strong gale with flying clouds"

Aug. 2
" Thursday at 4 AM got underway tracked in deep water untill 11 1/2 AM then padled far out in the river current easy untill 1/4 PM then tracked on North shore untill 4 1/4 PM then crofsed to a grafsy Island with a few pines upon the Lower end of it. tracked a long the South side of it in deep water and came a small rapid at the head of the Island and set our Canoes up with Poles. plenty of water for Boats. we then crofsed to the North side and put up at 5 1/4 PM it having broke out rain with Thunder Wind SW fresh breeze clear and Cloudy alternate. the banks pafsed this day are not quite so high as below but the scrub pine woods are much the same. this day went about 38 miles. many deer crofsed the river to the North but we did not kill any as it would have hindered us very much as this strong current would probably have carried us two or three miles down before we could have brought one to the shore"

Aug. 3
" Friday at 4.20 AM got underway tracked about 1 mile good water then padled and set 1 mile far out in the river in easy current it being shoal in shore and came to three Tents of Factory Indians that are killing deer at this place and near to them Six tents of Indians that have goods for Chatham House. heavy rain breaking out upon us we put up out tents a long side of them. gave the Leading Indian a present of Brandy and traded some provisions for the Journey. it having ceased raining At 1/2 PM we got underway again tracked about 4 miles very strong current and deep water then crofsed to an Island and tracked upon the South side of it and handed up a rapid 20 yards at the head of it then set about 200 yards strong current then crofsed to the North side of the river again and tracked about 2 miles good water then set up the river about 3 miles moderate current but shoal near the shore the water being upon the South shore but the bank is so steep and heigh that its impofsible to track upon it. the river pafsed this day has a strong current but like? all the river below is better for small Boats than Canoes it being full of gravelly shoals by no means dangerous but destroys the birch rind in the bottoms of the Canoes. put up at 6 1/2 PM 4 miles below Per ta-ta-ta Pow a stick or fall by the English called Hells Gate Fall being no place within reach where we could put up beyond this. Wind Variable round the Compafs with rain in the fore part of the day and Cloudy afternoon. went 10 miles this day"

Aug. 4
" Saturday last night we left our Canoes in the Water. at 2 AM it began to rain which obliged the People to take the Canoes and Cargoes on shore. it continued raining with the Wind at SW untill 7 AM then the Wind shifted to NE with drifting rain at 10.24 AM got underway tracked about 4 miles very heavy current the Water all laying on the North side the bank very heigh and very hard tracking in the face of it went to within 300 yds of the foot of the fall or? rapid and crofsed under the foot of it to the South side. the crofsing is by no means difficult the river at this place is near 1/2 mile wide very heigh bank on North side and low on the South which seems gaining Fast upon the North side. at present the South side is very shoal but a Boat would come up with half cargoe by the men some times going into the Water as heigh as their knees and some times upon dry ridges to track the Boat for about 200 yards then upon the top of a stony bank about 30 feet heigh for about 400 yards to a strong shoot of a Current. we handed the Canoes up this last part not so much on account of the strength of the current as the smoothnefs of the bottom as our setting poles would not hold for want of Iron shoes. we then carried up a steep bank all loose stones about 40 feet then 340 yards upon a kind of stony meadow good carrying. at this place I left 4 Bags of Flour and Oatmeal finding our Canoe work very heavy and the others refused to take a single thing into their Canoe though they were extraordinary well manned and light but they objected to the strength of their Canoe but they might have had a stronger if they had chose but they knew this was a small good going Canoe and then objected to its age. at 3 1/4 PM we left the carrying place and crofsed a gutway 20 yards wide to an Island on the South side and tracked up the North side of the Island 1 3/4 mile heigh good bank with a stony shore tracked upon the top of the bank a very strong current and not above 2 feet water then went to the South side and tracked at the Waters' edge 2 miles steep strong bank and strong current then tracked 1 1/2 mile upon the side of a good bank strong current and about 1 1/2 feet water even bottom then 1 mile upon the top of a heigh bank good tracking and good water then crofsed to the North side and put up at 6 1/2 PM latter part of the day Wind NE and Cloudy"

Aug. 5
" Sunday a very foggy morning at 4 AM got underway tracked about 2 1/2 mile on the North side good bank and deep water and came to a fall and carried 50 yards over a rock which is covered about 3 inches deep with mud but not bad except the landing which is upon a broken rock about 7 feet heigh the bank close above the rock is 30 or 40 yards heigh with a steep face which is constantly washing down upon the rock. at the top of the fall there is a shelf of a bout 2 feet and about 20 yards lower another of 4 feet. left the carrying place tracked 1/2 mile and came to double shelf or small fall tracked up it then continued on 1 1/2 mile to small bay then paddled 1/2 mile and came to the mouth of a river about 20 yards wide with much water coming down it. this river is called by the Indians Ma-ta-tate a Seepe it lays in a small bay close below a fall or very heavy rapid. carried out of this bay up a very steep bank 100 yards from the mouth of the river. the bank is about 70 yards up then 780 yards through the woods good ground and even except at a small run of water about the middle of it which has small banks then carried 120 yards down a sandy bank elevated about 45° but we slope? along it left the carrying place and tracked 1/4 mile very strong current then handed 1/4 mile then tracked 2 1/2 miles exceeding strong current and steep heigh banks. continued tracking 7 miles strong current bank as before and came to a carrying place 40 yards over a rock on the North side good carrying put up at 7 PM Wind Easterly with Cloudy Weather and rain at 7 PM"

Aug. 6
" Monday Wind NE a heavy gale with showers of heavy rain at times which made it unsafe moving amongst the shoals a head"

Aug. 7
" Tuesday at 4 1/2 AM got underway tracked 4 miles in strong current and pafsed 7 rapids. at the three last we handed the Canoes by the points of the rocks paddled 1 mile then tracked 1/2 mile in strong current and pafsed a small creek on the North side and came to a rapid. it being shoal we carried half the Cargoe 40 yards and led the Canoes up it then paddled 50 yards and handed through a narrow place between rocks paddled 100 yards then carried the cargoe 30 yards and handed the |Canoes up the rapid which is shoal and strong current then padled 150 yards and came to a fall about 15 feet perpendicular in 40 yards. carried 50 yards over a rock about 100 yards from the shore its shoal for about 100 yards about the fall we then padled 1/4 mile and came to the Nis-car min or Indian Gooseberry fall. led up 3 small shoots in 50 yards then 3 more in the space of 100 yards then paddled 1/4 mile to the end of a small bay on the North side at the foot of the fall carried 360 yards amongst Willows about 1 1/2 feet heigh and wet ground then just within the edge of the woods 320 yards in which space there is 5 swampy places then 200 yards through the woods to the waters edge good sound ground then padled 4 miles in some places very strong current and came to the kettle carrying place carried 50 yards upon a rock not very good then padled 1/4 mile amongst rocks and came to a carrying place 200 yards upon the North side of an Island and put up at 8 PM wind variable with Cloudy Weather the river we pafsed this day is full of rocks and about this place many Islands"

Aug. 8
" Wednesday at 5 1/2 AM got underway padled 100 yards then led through a narrow just the width of the Canoe a larger Canoe must have pafsed further out. then paddled 1/4? mile to the foot of a fall which falls 40 feet in 200 yards and carried on the North side 480 yards very bad unloading amongst large raged stones carried 50 yards upon them and the remainder through willows and swamps and raged stones then padled 100 yards then handed with a line 20 yards then carried 20 yards left the carrying place and tracked 1 mile then handed with a line on shore at two strong points the paddled 2 1/2 miles in moderate current to a fall and carried 15 yards over a rock a little from the shore padled 150 yards a long a bay then carried 150 yards through a Wood then tracked 1 mile and handed at a bad point then tracked 1/4 mile and came to a fall and carried 50 yards through a woody point on North side good carrying and low banks then padled and set with poles 1 1/2 miles in strong current and came to a fall carried the Cargoe 60 yards and the Canoes 10 yards over a rock on the North side then padled 4 miles and came to a fall and carried 125 yards through the Woods on the North side good carrying then padled 100 yards and and carried 80 yards under the bank and put up at 7 PM Wind Easterly a fresh gale at times with cloudy weather"

Aug. 9
" Thursday at 5 3/4 AM got underway padled 1/2 mile in which we pafsed two stony points with the tracking line put on shore to haul them up then crofsed to an Island. river in this place about 1 1/2 mile wide went to the south side of the Island padled 1/4 mile and handed by two points with a line on shore then padled 4 miles along the side of the Island and came to a fall and carried out of a small bay upon the Island 200 yards from the fall 330 yards through the woods into a bay the Carrying place is mofsy and swampy but not very bad except under the bank which is deep soft mud padled 1 mile along the side of the Island then handed with a line on shore 20 yards at this part Several small Islands lay to the South then padled along the Island 3 miles easy current and then crofsed to the South side of the river at this place two Islands lay in the middle of the river which about 1 1/2 mile wide and then padled 4 miles along the South side and crofsed to the North side the river about 1/2 mile wide with very heigh banks padled along the North side 2 miles then lightned the head of the Canoe and handed 30 yards up a rapid with the line on shore then padled 6 miles and crofsed to South side and put up at 7 PM Wind variable Easterly Cloudy Weather the river pafsed this day is all small bays of about 1/2 mile with rocky points upon which the current is very strong"

Aug. 10
" Friday much rain in the night and continued untill 6 AM and at 6 1/4 AM got underway paddled 3 miles deep water and easy current then 1/2 mile very strong current to the foot of the Gull Fall and crofsed under it to the North side and paddled 1/4 mile moderate Current then handed 20 yards between rocks up a rocky point slippy and bad then paddled 1/4 mile and handed 20 yards up a small shoot of current then paddled 200 yards to the bottom of a small bay near the foot of the fall on the North side and landed upon the Gull carrying place and carried 70 yards open and grafsy then 50 yards up a good bank through the woods about 950 yards and 50 yards down a good bank but steep and came to the water at a kind of bay by the side of the Gull Fall or rather very heavy rapid running all along the middle of the river with a very heavy swell padled 3/4 mile along the side of the river then handed with a line on the shore round a Point of rocks then padled 1/4 mile and came to two small Islands in a bay and carried up between them 50 yards upon a rock coverd with large stones the fall is about 5 feet perpendicular in 40 yards when the water is heigh it runs down between these Islands and the carrying place is then upon the outermost Island. padled 150 yards in a small bay then carried 300 yards through the woods on the North side then Paddled 200 yards to a strong rapid and handed the Canoes up it paddled 3/4 mile to an Island 100 yards from the North shore and carried upon the Island 340 yards to the head of it this part is full of Islands on the North side and suppose it to be little lefs than 3 miles wide from this place the Gull Fall is one intire rapid in the Middle of the river left the carrying place padled 1 mile then handed with a line up a bad point at which place Wm Flett and my self was carried of our legs but the line brought us to shore with no other damage than the weting of my watch paddled 3/4 mile and came to carrying place 60 yards over through a point of woods on the North shore then padled 1/2 mile and carried 60 yards over a rock and 130 yards through a point of woods mofsy but level to this place may still be reconed the Gull fall as the middle of the river is all one continued exceeding heavy rapid in a constant raging foam and is much worse than a Sea ocaisioned by the Wind as the Seas all have a hollow back but the Islands and points brake the current so much up the North side that it makes it not bad to get up we put up upon the carrying place at 7 PM Wind variable all round the compafs with cloudy Thunderlike Weather"

Aug. 11
" Saturday light rain in the morning and at 6.40 AM got underway paddled 1/4 mile then handed 30 yards with a line then paddled 1 mile and enterd the Gull Lake at 7 1/4 AM at Noon we met with three Canoes of Indians two of which have goods for Chatham House at 1 PM we put up with them at the end of the Gull Lake gave them a little brandy and engaged them to pilot us down the river wind variable with cloudy Weather"

Aug. 12
" Sunday Rain all the fore part of the day at 11.40 AM got underway paddled 3 miles pafsed three bays and handed at a point padled 1 mile and handed 30 yards at a point padled 2 1/2 miles then handed 20 yards at a point padled 1/4 mile and handed 30 yards at a point bad handing then paddled 1/2 mile then led up a rapid with a line 250 yards not good this is commonly a Carrying place a long the face of the bank and is a bad carrying place paddled 2 miles and put up at 6 1/2 PM Wind Easterly with rain in the forepart of the day latter part cloudy cold Weather"

Aug. 13
" Monday at 5 AM got underway padled 3 miles very strong current then handed 120 yards then paddled and set with poles 1 mile handed 70 yards then paddled 1 mile and came to Tas-qui-au Lake or split Lake. in coming up the river we kept always on the North side at 9 AM set sail in the Tasquiau Lake and sailed due West and run nearly 4 miles an hour and at 5 1/4 PM got to the end of the Lake and came to a fall which is on the South side of a large Island and carried through the woods on the South shore 200 yards in the lower side is a wet slippy bank for 40 yards and rather steep and on the uper side is 50 yards of steep bank but good in dry weather. enterd a part of the river which these Indians call little grafs river but it is still part of the Sas-katch-a-wan river paddled 2 miles easy current and put up on the large Island at 6 1/4 PM Wind NE fine weather"

Aug. 14
" Tuesday at 4 3/4 AM got underway padled 1 mile and came to the end of the Island the current is easy all the way from the fall paled? 2 1/2 miles the current increasing in strength and came to part with several Islands an the current very strong we was obliged to hand the Canoes with a line on the shore 30 yards at a point upon the South side of an Island on the North side the river an other Island lays opposite to this on the South side off the mouth of the Sas-katch-a-wan River which in this place is near 1/2 mile wide at this place the little Grafs river joins the Sas-katch-a-wan no European has been up the Sas-katch-a-wan between there and the South track to Cumberland House. followed the little grafs river leaving the Sas-katch-a-wan to the Southward went 4 miles. it is then drawn in from above 1/4 mile wide to about 30 or 40 yards wide and very little current and fine low banks paddled 5 miles more in moderate current and came to a rapid handed the Canoes about 300 yards and at two places in the middle of it with a line and carried part of the cargoe 30 yards padled 1 mile and came to a heavy fall and carried 200 yards through the woods on the South side the bank on the lower side is steep? for 70 yards and bad walking and the uper side is not good and the water now being low makes it bad loading when I went up before we carried 100 yards upon an Island in the middle of the fall but the Indians left that carrying place upon the account of some trees being blown down which had stoped up the path but two men would clear it in an hour we paddled 5 miles and came to a Lake called Which-a-ha-gan Sack-a-ha-gan or Stinking Lake padled 9 miles to the end of it and enterd the river still called the little grafs river padled about 12 miles in the river easy current and about from 70 to 150 yards wide and came to a kind of lake about 1 mile wide at enterance padled 2 miles along the South side and put up at 7 PM Wind SW fresh gale and Cloudy Weather"

Aug. 15
" Wednesday at 6 AM got underway paddled 1 mile in a kind of Lake and 2 miles in a narrow part and came to a fall or strong rapid about 100 yards long and an Island in the middle of it we handed 70 yards on the North shore very strong current then paddled 1 1/2 mile and came to a Lake called Pa-mitch-a-cum-mow Sack-a-ha-gan about 3 miles long we paddled acrofs it 1 1/2 mile and enterd a fine river still called little grafs river padled 1 mile in the river then handed 30 yards on the North shore then padled 1/4 mile to the Cliff fall by the Indians called Pi-ac a Sin-ne Pow-a-stick or one stone fall for a single heigh cliff standing seperate from the other part of the rock. to my great surprise I have learned that the Canadians have three men at a House close to Chatham House with Liquor and that at Chatham there is only one and he does not understand the Language therefore do not think it safe to deliver the Brandy at the House as all the Indians now at place are in the Canadians Interest and they would wish no better sport than by giving the Indians a little Liquor setting them upon the single man that is there. I cannot prevail upon one of them that is with me to remain at the House if I had known of this before I left York Factory I would not have proceeded without one two of the men which are to Winter at the place its surprising to me that all the men knew it and that I never heard of it I always understood that there was not a single Canadian staid in the Summer As no Indian will be this way before James Spense and his crew and having pafsed all the bad rivers between York Factory and Chatham House I thought it safest to lay it up as likewise the bundles which the Indian who is to pilot us down the river has with him the other two Canoes left us in Tas-qui-au Lake and are going to hunt up river to Northward and came in by an otherway laid up all secure"

Sextant reading


" at 1/2 PM got underway to return to York Factory many reasons combining to induce me to it amongst which was the general expectation of the Ship arriving very early and four of the Men now with me have given in their determination of returning to Europe and although I do not expect they will do it yet should they mifs seeing the Ship they will the cause of constant confusion in the Country and would be a handle made a liberal use of an other year if Men are (as they will most likely) wanted to go up the river instead of laying at the Factory to wait the arrival of the Ship. for my own part I cannot see any reason for our laying at York Factory so long as we did the men that came from the Northward with me were ready at a days notice but the men that come down the river seems to get a lounging way about the Factory so that the longer they stay the lefs they seem prepared for the Journey. one great obsticle is the time men take to agree when their contract is expired as they mostly repeatedly refuse engaging again as they are well afsured they will be courted to it as their numbers is far to few and they are well informed of their own consequence
We went N 3/4 mile down the river NNW 1/2 mile in broad part or kind of bay then NNW 1/4 mile in a narrower part and NW b W 1/2 mile in a part about 200 yards wide and enterd Pa-mitch-a-cum-mow Lake went N b W 1 mile a crofs it the Lake appearing about 2 miles to West and 1/4 mile to East with two Islands at the mouth of the river on the lower side of the Lake went N 1/4 mile NE 1 mile NNE 1 mile N b E 1/2 mile and NNW 1/4 mile the river about 100 yards wide and came to the fall before mentioned as having an Island in the middle handed 70 yards close along the North shore then NNW 1/4 mile a small bay on North side NE b E 1/3 mile the river about 200 yards broad enterd a kind of small lake about 1/2 mile wide went ENE 2 miles and E b S 1 1/2 mile nearly along the South side then enterd the river about 200 yards wide and went NE b N 3/4 mile N 1/4 mile NNW 1/4 mile N 1/4 mile NNW 1/2 mile NW b W 1/2 mile NW b N 1/2 mile NNW 3/4 mile E 3/4 mile NE 1/2 mile WNW 1/4 mile NE b N 1/4 mile ENE 1/4 mile E 1/4 mile ENE 1/4 mile and N 1/2 mile the river about 150 yards wide fine moderate current put up at 6 1/2 PM Wind Westerly fresh gale untill 2 PM with clear Weather latter part of the day Variable with flying clouds"

Aug. 16
" Thursday at 5 AM we got underway in the Stinking Lake went North 1 1/2 in a part? about 1/2 mile then N 1/2 E 2 miles to very near a point on the West side left a bay a bay to West about 3 mile deep with several Islands in it the East shore seems to have near a regular sweep and opposite to the bay about 3/4 mile from our course to the land continued N 1/2 E 2 miles a bay about 1 mile to W and the land about 1/2 mile to East, N 1/2 E 1/2 mile the Lake in this place 1/2 mile wide N 1/2 E 1 1/2 mile nearly along the middle a bay on each side in the bay the Lake is about 1 mile wide the Land round the Lake is bold but not very hilly and well coverd with pines enterd the river and went NE b N 1/2 mile E b N 1/2 mile E 1 1/2 mile and ENE 3/4 mile and came to the carrying place 200 yards on the South shore which should have been upon a rocky woody Island went E b N 3/4 mile and NE 1/4 mile and came to a rapid in running of which my Canoe was upset by the bowsman hauling the head of the Canoe into an eddy and a squal of Wind catching us at the same time she instantly filled and overset but luckily no lives were lost
Lost the Sextant, Compafs, small glafs, a Kettle a Tent and several other small articles
We got the Canoe safe on Shore and stoped the remainder of the day to dry our things. Luckily the Hon'ble Companies Watch got no damage as I have always kept it corked up in a pewter cup my own got full of water and in drying it it got broke. I coud not use the compafs in going up the river their being so many Iron bound kegs in the Canoe that when it was set in different parts it would alter three or four points so I defered taking the Courses until my return. this day Wind Easterly a heavy gale with flying clouds the Indians repeatedly searched for the Sextant &c but without succefs"

Aug. 17
" Friday Wind NE a heavy gale with cold rain all day which prevented us from moving"

Aug. 18
" Saturday at 1/2 PM got underway and 4 3/4 PM came to the carrying place into Tas-qui-as Lake the fall is run when the Water is good or rather heigh and seems not bad now in carrying the Canoes Peter Brown sliped in going down the hill and fell upon his back by which means my Canoe was broke so nearly in two that it held only by the Gunwales which were very much strained but the age of the Canoe was not the cause but a fall they have in puting the splinters into them instead of breaking the joints they have three lengths of splinters and makes the joints all together and often give them so little lap that its surprising they do not work in two. Mr Tomison broke the other end of this Canoe in two exactly in the same manner. all this evening imployed in repairing the Canoe. Wind NE with heavy rain all the fore part of the day and the latter part cloudy"

Aug. 19
" Sunday after having finish the repair of our Canoe at 6 AM we got underway in the Lake paddled untill 8 AM then set sail and at 4 PM came to the place where James Spence Wintered the Winter before last. found James Spence laying there with three Canoes Weather bound. they had a net set in a small river which runs from the Northward and is reported as coming from near the Churchill river and the Indians say it is navigable up to a carrying place which leads into the Churchill. if it should be found practicable to get up this river into the Churchill water it would mifs the part of the Churchill river which is reported to be so bad and will be a much nearer way to Isle-a-la Crofs than by the way of Cumberland House besides there some reason to expect a pafsage will be found into the East end of the Athapascow Lake by the way of the deers? Lake. at 3 PM we left James Spence who was likewise thinking of geting underway and at 7 PM the Indians killed a deer at the lower end of the Gull Lake and we put up. Wind WSW fine clear Weather"

Aug. 20
" Monday at 5 1/2 AM got underway at 6 AM enterd the North or Port Nelson River and came to the first fall run the uper end on the North side of an Island then crofsed to an other Island and carried 250 yards upon the Island very good carrying the woods closly burnt (if we had gone on the North side we must have carried at two places) we crofsed to the North side and run a rapid then crofsed a branch about 40 yards wide to the head of an Island and carried 340 yards the river in this part is full of large Islands suppose the river about 3 mile wide at this place we shot a rapid we handed at a going up and then carried 300 yards on the North shore not a mile between the two last carrying places went 100 yards to an other carrying place carried down a creek about 50 yards this place was dry when we went up but theres? much water coming down it now we then run down the North side of the river to the Gull carrying place and carried over it to the foot of the fall all the three last carrying places belong to the Gull Fall or rapid which is not lefs than 3 miles long at the foot of the rapid the river is nearly 1 mile wide and heigh banks. about a mile below the carrying place the rivers turns wide with several Islands in it we crofsed to the South side and came to a rapid we led at in going up run the rapid the current is very crooked but not very rough went on the North side of an Island we carried upon in going up 330 yards on the South side of it but by going on the North side of the Island we mifs the carrying place, we shot one rapid at the head of the Island about 300 yards long but not bad went 2 miles and run an other rapid about 300 yards long went 2 miles and came to a strong current for about 1/2 mile then a rapid run it close to the Island its very good went 1 mile and came to the end of the Island and run a rapid we carried at in going up. the river at this place about 250 yards wide carried at the next place then run a long rapid but good then carried 150 yards then paddled 120 yards acrofs a bay then carried under the bank 90 yards continued on down the North side and run a rapid at the head of the carrying place above the head of the kettle carrying place then carried over the carrying place which is exceeding bad but with a good deal of trouble a good carrying place might be cut through the woods, went to the Kettle carrying place carried over and put up at 5 3/4 PM Wind Southerly fresh breeze fore part of the day with small showers of rain. Musketoes exceeding troublesome"

Aug. 21
" Tuesday at 5 1/4 AM got underway went to the next carrying place and carried 60 yards continued on to the Niscomin carrying place carried over the carrying place went 1/4 mile and handed the Canoes 70 yards then run 2/3 acrofs the river then run back by which means we kept in good water then crofsed back to the North side and about 2 miles above the next carrying place we met eight Canoes of the Indians with trading goods for Chatham House we pafsed those Indians on the 3rd inst. left them then run down a strong rapid and directly crofsed to the South side and run down the rapid which in going up we carried at on the North side close along shore found it very good going down on the South side but it would be exceeding bad to go up on this side. then crofsed back to the North side and continued down the river to the next rapid then handed the Canoes about 100 yards along the shore about the middle of the fall then run almost to the bottom then brought up and carried 100 yards under the bank at the point of a bay by the side of the fall. this fall is not bad for canoes as they run close to the rocks but boats would be forced to keep room for their Oars. This rapid more properly styled than a fall has a very heavy swell upon it particularly at the point of the bay near the bottom of the rapid where the swell is so heigh and returns so very hollow that it would take a Ships bow under it, into the small bay below this fall or rapid, a little river called Me-ta-tate a Seepe? falls which part of the Indians that have goods for Chatham House are gone up for the sake of provision they go through small Lakes and join the Tas-qui-au Lake then follow the usual track, We crofsed under the foot of the rapid to the South side the river in this place is about 3/4 mile wide then went down the river to Pe-ta-ta-ta Pow-a-stick by the Englishmen called Hell gate fall but that is not the Indian interpretalation. at this place we found one bag of Flour and one of Oatmeal which we left upon our journey up the Indians having taken the other two a way for Chatham House.

As far as this place Boats could be brought from York Factory with ease and would be of great utility in the first place it would save the Canoes very much the river below this being very full of Gravelly shoals and are not easily seen untill as the water is deep close below them and the ridges lay like banks which in fact they are being drove into hills and ridges by the Ice when the Canoes run upon them the birch rind strips into slips as thin as fine paper and turns raged and secret leaks get under them most birch rind when broke the ? into peals of in a skin and turns hollow and the deeper it is scratched the more skins will arise and the best way of treating those scratches is to trim them close and pitch all round the edges of the part cut. a Canoe man would always rather have a hole broke through his Canoe than have a bad scratch as by repairing the hole it becomes tight. An other and greater advantage would arrise from the men being kept from the Factory for when once they get there they seem not easily got away again. this year the Chatham House Men came at their ease down the river in the Summer and remained at the Factory untill the fall of the Year whereas Hugh Leask and Peter Brown came down from the Athapascow Lake went up to near Chatham House with me came down to York Factory with me and are gone again up the Port Nelson River to Settle a new House near Chatham House. the Journey to and from Chatham House can be performed upon an average in the space of one Month. If the Canoes meet the goods at this place the men would return chearfully? untill the Goods were carried up and the Furrs brought down and if found needfull part of the boats crews could be added to the Canoes and after all the Goods were delivered at the respective houses the men might then come to the Factory and carry up goods at Ship time the Boats might wait the return of the Canoes or might be brought down by a few Men as there is neither danger or difficulty below this place. We continued on down the River to the place where we found the Indians in our pafsage up and put up at 7 1/2 PM by the side of two Tents belonging to the Factory Indians who like our selves were in want of Provisions as no deer are crofsing the river they informed us that the Men were gone to the Factory to take debt with a view of going to their Winter Quarters. Wind NE in the forepart of the day light airs and a stiff gale in the evening with Cloudy Weather"

Aug. 22
" Wednesday at 6 1/4 AM we got underway and at 6 PM we put up a little above the Seal Islands not being able to proceed further for Wind which blew a stiff gale at NE with Cloudy Weather if we had been amongst rapids we could not have moved this day"

Aug. 23
" Thursday at 7 AM we got underway which was as soon as the Wind would permit we went about 12 miles and put in at low water the tide being near 1/2 mile out and carried all above high Water mark the gale being to heavy for turning the point of Marsh remained all this day Wind NE heavy gale and cloudy"

Aug. 24 1792
" Friday at 3 AM got underway turned the point of Marsh and at 7 AM we had the pleasure of arriving on board the Sea Horse where we waited untill flood and then went up to the Factory at which place I had the happinefs to hear every thing was well and am with the Greatest Respect The Hon'ble Companys Obedient
Serv't Philip Turnor"


1M160 B.239/a/94

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