This is a virtually complete transcription of Donald Mackays Brandon House Journal from 1793-1794 by Alex Nicol.
Title page of Brandon House Journal 1793-94
"Journal from Osnaburgh House to Red River by Donald Mackay with Three boats & Two N West Canoes & nineteen Men VIZ."
John Sutherland "Afsistant"
John Richards "patroon"
James Yorston "ditto"
Brandon House Journal
July 30 1793
" Departed from Osnaburgh House at 10 AM and received 8 days flour but no meat or Journey Brandy which will not answer well to take this Article out of the outfit as Brandy is the principle Article in the Country where I am going to. I have five Crafts three Boats & two Canoes and nineteen men to Navigate them, put up at 4 PM the two Canoes being Leaky, good weather."
" Started at 6 AM it blowed very hard gale of Wind from the NW was detained about a Miles distance. at 10 AM we sett of again but was obliged to put up at 4 PM the Canoes was almost sunk before we got a shore"
" Started at 10 AM but was not able to get the distance one Mile with a Storm of Wind from the North West & a head"
" Started at 5 AM still blow hard but at 2 PM it blow so hard that we was obliged to put a Shore & detained all day"
" Started at 5 AM being still a strong wind from the N West got to the Carrying place at 2 PM & carryed all the goods over it at half past six in the? evening"...
" Started at day light made a good day's Journey got over three Carrying places the water very low ordered John Richards & four men to go & stopt the water below us for to morrow to raise it so as to get through this cursed Creek the easier but did not Effect it as to do any service"
" Started very early got over some of the Carrying places the water exceeding low, meet Simon Bougrant and fourteen men two Indians returning to Osnaburgh House with five? Canoes having found that one of my Canoes was not sufficient good to go so long a Journey, he peremtorly refused it as well as some Guns? that I had an order for from O:H: my two Canoes was broke in Nottinways fall's one had her bottom torn out and the other much hurted? I was obliged to sent one of the Boats back for their Cargo, I got them both mended this evening very late in the night, fine weather"
Aug. 6 1793
" Started at 6 AM the Canoe was broke again, it is but folly to think that the Orkney men will learn to Navigate Canoes, this detained us much. This days Journey we came to the end of this Divels Creek meet Pishcaucadis? two sons who stayed with us all night, rained this evening"
Aug. 7 1793
" Started at AM rainy weather was obliged to make a carrying place below the creek, the two Indians follow us, at 2 PM we past an Indian tent which came after us after we put up OH Capt. was among them & had not so much as a duck to give me, I gave the Capt. two quarts of Brandy and sent him off but returned in the night and was troublesome & very abusive"
Aug. 8 1793
" Started at 5 AM foggy morning meet three Indians in the afternoon but had nothing to give us"...
" Started at 5 AM fine weather the Indians give me five Beaver skins to get Brandy & was very troublesome to me the whole night got some Bear's meat which servd the men in meat for one Day for which I paid a Gal Brandy"
Started at 5 AM sailed a little this day got to the Bottom of the Lake Saal & a remarkable days Journey"
" Started at 5 AM strong wind a head but was so fortunate that we was out of its reach to hurt us got to the carrying place below the Lake saal at 10 AM found some Indian Corn & the Canadians fresh track at this Carrying place, made the two below the Lake. self was hurt by a Keg of Powder which I took in a very bad posture strained me in my side"
" Started at 5 AM came to the three Rivers or Paquaishmattwoin? where we found the mark Signify the number of Canoes that past to Red Lake we came to the five falls, self very ill, we run the first & got the Cargo of the two Canoes over the New Carrying place on the south side which will exempt us from the other four - (it is short but bad)"
" the men finished carrying the Goods at 7 AM and finished launching at 2 PM when Mattevoish? Red Lake Captain came to us demanding his fee in Brandy pafsing his land, but had nothing to give me, I gave him two Gallons of English Brandy. I then set of for the next fall and at the long carrying place sent John Richards with a letter for Mr. James Sutherland to the other side directing him to come the way of the five falls, self still very ill & is not able to do any thing but walking over the Carrying places as yet"
" made a carrying place at 8 AM John Easter being sick I was obliged to put John Richards in his place & self to steer the Boat, Magnus Yorston this day behaved in a manner very unbecoming with regard to do his Duty - Strong wind a head served the men both Flour & meat for a week"
" made the three carrying places at 1 PM - meet a Canoe of Indians three men who informed us that three Canoes of Canadians past for Red Lake who said they would go far this fall, John Sutherland stoved his boat which detained us three hours - we came to the fall of Skabigevoin? served the men one day's meat in Venison which I purchased from the Indians strong wind a head all day"
" This morning I had some quarreling with the men being so slow in carrying over the Goods & in particular with John Sutherland for being near running the fall with his boat, we came to Mr. James Sutherlands house last Winter, rainy weather stopt for the men to make their bread as there is an Oven here."
Aug. 17 1793
" started at 8 AM being rainy weather at 3 PM meet an Indian tent, Wapi & his family: Wabiskinnan & his family traded some Rice, gave them some Brandy, they made a long speech about the Canadians that they were to do Wonders against the English etc. etc."
" Started at 5 AM came to the new track to Portage delisle made two carrying places and two launching places for the Boats after we put up Peshcaucadis? son came half Murdered by the Indians when they got drunk and one of his wives mifsing."
" got the two Canoes carried over this morning through the Indian carrying place John Richards went by the fall and? a very bad place to get of from the carrying place, put up at 6 PM in Mr. Hulse's Lake give the men a pint of Grogg Extra on that Acct. Wabishkinnan came up with us very late at night & was obliged to keep a watch served the men meat for six days."
Aug. 20 1793
" it rained and thundred in the morning blow very hard from the South West with much labour we past through Mr. Berren's Lake, the men givin three Cheers I served them a pint of Grogg Each man, this is a Customary fee in This Country and particularly from a Gentleman of Property for his title & claim to such a place or part of the Country"
" Started at 7 AM very strong wind a head all day at 2 PM we perceived two canoes coming down the Canadian track to wards the fall of Portage Delisle, to my surprise who was it but Angus Shaw my late Partener with Eight men in his Canoe & seven men in the other, he past us & went to a tent of Indians who was below the fall, took from them what they had & gave them plenty of Rum, he goes a head to catch what he can find, very Stout fellows he had in his two Canoes, These Indians came up to us in the night very drunk brought little Rice & I gave them some Brandy & they went of after Shaw who Spilt our Brandy & full'd their Keg with pure Rum they came back to me & began to quarrel with me saying that I did give them nothing but water & would insist on get more, I was under the Necifity to give one of them a beating when one of them went to my boat to take Brandy but only stole my great coat & went into the woods when another went for his Gun & was about to fire at me, Pesheaucadi? son seeing him; discharged his Gun, the contents lodged in his left arm & took a Button out of my Vestcoat in pafsing me standing before my tent Door"
" at 2 this morning the Indians made their Second appearance when I give the Alarm to all hands to embark and self & John Richards fired two Shots so as to keep them off till the men was ready when we got into the Crafts & glidded down the Current softly without any noise, at the break of day there past us twenty-two Canoes of Canadians and every one six men for the Northward or Fort Lapreree, our men being without sleep last night makes them work slow, made a very bad carrying place this evening call'd Sault des Esclare?, our freind the son of Pesheaucadi? left us this night as he is now afraid of the Indians for what he had done, he told us to take good care at the fourth carrying place as there was a River wk? where they could come and meet us there, Deposited two Kegs of Flour where we put up below the fall"
" Started at 6AM came to the three falls perhaps the worst that any of the Honble Hudsons Bay Company servants ever seen, served them Extra Grogg being very much fatigued in Launching this day put up at the third & all bad"
" made the carrying place at 8 AM came to the Sault of Jacque the greatest fall between Albany & Lake Ouinipique the men was frightened at it & thought we would never get over this fall, Jolly Coeur was very sick & could do nothing, some more not well with the cold?, very hot weather this three days past put up below the fall."
" Started at 6 AM made two carrying places this day & runned the Grand Rappid; served the men 6 days in meat, very hot weather, the water very low & bad for the Canoes & Boats."
" started at 6 AM we made a Carrying place where never was one made before on Acct. of the low water, made another when we entered the white River, never a man seen such sight of falls as can be seen in sight of one another here made six carrying places this day & served the men Extra Grogg for working well."
" Started at 6AM made three carrying places in the white river & finished her this day thank God for it, made a good day's Journey gave the men Extra Grog on that Acct. meet an Indian Canoe two men, we put up in Lake Dubonnet at 6 PM the two Indians slept along with us had a watch tonight."
" started at 6 AM very foggy morning at the first Carrying place the Indians Demanded a little Brandy, I gave them a quart each They told us that two Canadians was shot few days ago at this Carrying place, they went off & we went on to the next Carrying place, we came at 3 PM to that Great carrying place call'd the Bonnet, sent the two patroons John Sutherland & John Richards to visit the falls of the carrying place to Exempt launching if pofsible They returned at 6 PM & found it very bad"
Aug. 29 1793
" got our goods over at 9 AM got the Boats over the falls at 2 PM at the same time Mr. Cuthbert Grant and Mefs McKay & McDonald arrived with two Canoes & twelve men for to go a head to Red River for the purpose to gather up every thing they can meet with, They will go in one day more than what we can go in three days. deposited an eight Gallon Keg of R'd Spirits in the Carrying place for next spring in case meeting Indians who have some furs etc. put up at the next carrying place at 7 PM"
" Started at 5 AM when three Canoes of Canadians past us, at the Carrying place five more past us, at night four more came & slept with us. Kept a watch on that Account, the men had a very hard days work of it this day. Will'm Louttit near being killed with one of the Boats the falls being so bad."
" Started at 6 AM made three carrying places before brakfast when three Canoes more past us, we came to point au Futre where Mr. Cuthbert Grant & his followers was tenting at La Cuin? House with twenty Canoes & uppwards of Ninty men, I lowered sail (being then sailing) and come near Shore, but none of them came to receive or salut us, I turned of & set sail again to Enter into Lake Ouinipique, at the same time a light Canoe started & past us they steered to the Northward and the Night prevented us seeing where they went, the wind changed in the Night was obliged to unload the Boats & hauled them up from the Lake the water raised about six feet in the course of the night served the men Extra Grogg this day"
Sept. 1 1793
" Storm of wind from the N West detained us all day the men was obliged to remove their Baggage four times the water still raising, served the men Six days meat & flour, at 6 PM we Speyed a Canoe in the large?, the wind began to abate ordered the men to be in readinefs to start as soon as pofsible"
" last night at 8 PM we set off to go round the great neck of land which is 26 miles round, at midnight sixteen Canoes of Canadians past us & three Batteaux in a Short time after we came up with them, being all a Ground as we was soon after seeing it impofsible to get through we returned back to go around? about the Island never was the water so low as to oblige any one to go round this Island, at day break the wind began to blow a little & great swell from the NW made the Boats & Canoes shipt water, made as fast to wards shore as pofsible & got to the mainland ar 6 AM was detained till one PM when we started and came up with Mr. C. Grant, but as soon as he had seen us, he set of with Eight men in his Canoe & could see no more of him, at the same time the rest of his canoes came in sight and past us, as also the light Canoe who went from point au futre Cruizing? & watching our Motions, they have displayed a great deal of Stratagems & Manuvers this three days past, we cannot now keep up with them, which gives me great uneasinefs as they will gather everything they can see, our men is so slow that I am afraid that I cannot get to a place where we can live this Winter as the water is so low"
Sept. 3 1793
" started at 5 AM at 7 AM we have seen a head about sixteen Canoes of Canadians, but was obliged to put a shore by a strong wind from the N West as we was likewise we have not spoke to them as their beheaviour to us is so indifferent that I do not think it worth my while, Kill'd five ducks this day, Mefs Mackay & McDonald paid us a visit in the evening, very stormy weather all day"
" in the night the water raised about six feet perpendicular some of the Cargo was under water; I'm afraid damaged, Started at 6 AM Entered Red River where Mr. C. Grant was tented with four tents of Indians, he has been making a very unbecoming Speech to the Indians about us saying that he would take the Goods from the English if he choosed it etc.? we past them all & went about twenty Miles up the River rained at night, two Indians followed us to whom I give 2 Gall'ns of Brandy etc.etc.?"
" very cold morning started at 6 AM came to the Ripples five miles long very low water the Natives never seen it so low the Canadians go in now with half Load as they have flat Bottom Boats they past us again this day, we had much to do to get clear of the shoals and Stones in those Ripples served the men flour & Grogg as they worked very hard this day"
Sept. 6 1793
" Started at 6 AM very frosty morning some Indians slept with us & went a head in the morning at 11 AM we came to the Fork where Mr. Grant & all his Canoes was waiting for some flesh from some of the Indians, when we arrived the Indians Saluted us with several Guns fired they invited me to one of their tents & made a present of 40 lbs dry meat three Beaver skins & two small Bear skins, for which I gave them four Gall'n Indian Brandy and three yards of Tobacco. This article tobacco is too thick for to be cut & divided among great numbers of Indians & will be very Expencive in trade. we started at 2 PM & left the Canadians behind us, broke one of the Canoes in the evening served the men six days meat."
Sept. 7 1793
" Thundred & rained all last night & all this day detained by it but thank God it will raise the water"
" last night was the most troublesome one I ever felt? in the N. West. Mr. C. Grant gave such quantity to the Indians of Liquor that they were entirely Mad, some of them took their Guns & said that they would Kill the Englishmen and would take Brandy etc. etc. I was much abused by them because I would not give any Brandy, I was almost provoked to beat them in a hostile manner, we started in the morning James Brown broke his Canoe detained us much, Mr. Grant being a head had the chance geting a Beafflo this day, his men inland meet him & is now a good way a head"
" started at 6 AM the men work very slow, They are of opinion that this is the only way for them to get Grogg which is not now in my power to do as I have to contend with a strong opposition, it grieves me to see men who has full allowances of provisions will not work, like those who has nothing but what Chance puts in their way, the Canadians now has not the least morsel to eat but what is catched in their Journey, it rained hard this evening"
Sept. 10 1793
Started at 6 AM very wet morning and bad Shoals to get through. at 1 PM an Indian came to see us who killed an old Bull of the Beaffloe, he desired? me to sent for the meat, I sent 10 men for it at seven PM they arrived with the best of it and very bad meat it is and the Indian came back with the men fine weather"
"Paid the Indian and set of at 7 AM the men broke the Canoes three times this day and is very unrully as no Grogg is not given them now, Grogg would amount to tripple their wages as this is the Article to procure trade, waiting the Canoes all this afternoon & at seven no arrival of any of them"
" waiting this morning for the Canoes till 8 AM in coming in sight they broke their Canoe again. Robt Taylor began to abuse me for puting him in a Canoe had no Gum or Pitch or Wattap. I gave them yesterday a Bunch or roll, and they lost it by Neglect. having a small Canoe which an Indian left me I took six parcels from them and put John Richards into the Canoe and self steering the Boat, Jollycoeur threated to leave the goods on the Beech canoe & all took from them the three Bales? dry Goods & put it into the Boats and told them they must Stand by the Consequences should they attempt to misbehave themselves gave them all the Gum we had & left behind no sight of them at 7 PM served the men their flour this evening the men work very slow Magnus Yorston in Particular this day"
" Waited this morning for the Canoes till 10 AM at the same time James Yorston perceived a Leake in in his Boat got it unloaded & found a hole in it made by an old Oak Stump, got it mended but no pitch & very little we could get at O.H. I only wish that one of the Company would feel my uneasinefs & vexation of mind that I do in those days by a sett of Stubborn ill natured & lazy men, often do I repent that I engaged myself in this Grand and Dangerous Enterprise seeing my opponents so powerful in every respect. I work myself like a Negro & cannot for all make any figure like my Neighbour, they are a head and will get every thing, deposited a Keg of flour this day on the North side but the Mark is on the south on the side of a tree - I hope in? few? years that some one else will Experience a little of what I do now of what keeps me from the night rest as well as in the day time, God send them better luck"
" Started at 6 AM had some dispute with the men as They seemed not to mind me as I do not give them Grogg, John Sutherland stoved his Boat & detained us two hours this day of our journey, past this three days as much Oak Elm & Ash as would build a Hundred Ships of the Line"
" Started at 6 AM went very slow, the men left two of their Hatchits? at the place where they sleep & I was obliged to go back for it? and was very late before I came up to them. Give them Grogg this night as they work hard this day, James Yorston in particular & Andrew Taylor, fine weather, self very fatigued"
" Started at 6 AM self went to the plains to look out for Beaffloe but was disappointed, all the Indians following Grant drove every thing before them, I went on to the Indian Carrying place where I found the Old Maskego & his family tenting he killed a Beaffloe two days ago, he & his wife arrived just as I did with meat of which he gave me the best part, the Crafts still behind & I am exposed to a frosty night not as much as a blanket to cover me"
" This morning I have been so bad with a pain in my bones which stops me from walking. I fired several Guns but received no Answer, at 3 PM they came in Sight, I ask what keep them so long They give a very indifferent Answer, the Indian told me that Mr. Grant past there four days ago, our men is so Awkward & so Slow & unwilling that the least thing is an Excuse to Delay - served the men for six days in meat, for which I give the Indian two & half yards Blue Cloth for it, give the men Grogg."
Sept. 18 1793
" self very ill this morning sent the Indians a head to acquaint the Indians we was coming. I was obliged to walk on account of the Shoalnefs of the water, we past Mr. John Rofs's Fort where he was stopt by the Indians the year 1780, and saw a new grave there, I suppose it to be a Canadian burried"
" Started at 6 AM one of the Canoes was broke in setting of. I spoke to John Sutherland what was the reason that the men work so Slow he spoke to them & I heard with my ears Mag. Yorston say what need we mind that, I gave them Grogg but all is vain to think that some of them will work, I must take notice of five who works hard, John Richard Andrew Taylor James Yorston James Brown & David Brown ought to be rewarded accordingly, fine weather."
" Stopt giving drams in the Morning they went on as Slow as usual till we came to Mr. McNab's Island give them there Grogg the Customary fee, we went on a little better then, I had one of the Trading Guns when firing a shot at a Very Large Snake, the Stock broke at my shoulder, below the guard, the Indians also says that our Guns is worse than they used to be and now ought to be better when we have to contend with people who has every thing suitable for the businefs - fine weather but very low water."
" Started at 5 AM came on better this day I gave them a dram & a pint of Grogg each man, John Richards killed a Sturgeon Wt. 64 lbs. served out flour for sixteen days, fine weather."
" started at 6 AM very shoal water, my left knee very painful to me all this day in walking, seen where a band of Horses came to meet the Canadians from Fort du Eppinette, strong wind a head from the West, served them again Grogg this day"
" Started at 6 AM very cloudy weather & cold at 3 PM it began to rain & blowed so hard that we was detained the rest of this day, Past Mr. Currie's old Fort made in 1767"
" Started at 10 AM it rained all night & this morning till now at 2 PM: I shot a Goose, the report of which took two Canadians who had six Horses out of the woods on the south side of the River, they fired three shotts which brought me back to see if they were Indians, the boats being still behind me, they crofsed the River, they said that they come to bring up the Goods of the traders of Michellemacknac who was coming with Thirty Canoes up this River, they say they Expect to meet them very soon, I put up at six PM: served the men meat for six days"
" the Canadians having slept with us last night I questioned them about if they had a pafsport, they said they had none, I found them Contradicting one Another, the men hearing some strange noise on the south side of the River we concluded that it might be some of their Accomplices concealed as they had six Horses & saddles & only two men conducting them. I instantly apprehended one of them & kept him prisoner all night in my tent & dismifsed in the Morning to go about his businefs"
" Started at 7 AM a frosty morning self a hunting put up at 7 PM: we keep a watch now as those Vagabonds of Canadians who has abandoned themselves to live as Indians may attempt to plunder, there is many of them now deserted & run away from their Masters & Employers."
" Started at 7 AM very cold morning it rained at 11 AM was obliged to give Grog twice this day for I cannot get them to go a head, we come past where Mr. Prudome was killed in 1778, seen some fine pine trees this day"
" very frosty morning & very bad to start The men Started at 8 AM self a head hunting Robt Taylor broke his canoe which detained them much, to day our Vituals is done & God knows what I will do now, very shoal water."
" very frosty morning the men very unwilling to start I was obliged to broach a Keg to give them a dram as usual for I cannot get nothing done without Grog & drams - self a hunting killed 17 ducks when an Indian arrived afrom Fort du Eppinette who brought two Swans he tells us that there was ten tents of Indians at that Fort when Mr. Grant arrived which traded all that they had before he went of up the River. we make but a poor days Journey of it the men has neither heart nor Spirit to do any thing, served their flour for 8 days."
Sept. 30 1793
" sent the Indian of to his father with two Gallons of Brandy & two yards of Tobacco & to acquaint the Indians that we was coming, the men very insolent as their Vituals is out, it would require the philosophy of Sir Isaac Newton to deal with those men."
Oct. 1 1793
" Started at 7 AM self a hunting at 2 PM I could plain see the Canadians walking about Fort du Eppinette, I give the men Extra Grog to drink the Company & Succefs"
" Started at 7 AM: very low water this day came to Fort du Eppinette at 2 PM: found two tents of Indians drunk on our arrival, and one John Mills? & four Canadians at the Fort who said that the Canadians which we meet below was not good men, that they run away from their Masters in the Mifsisippie River and took some Goods from their Masters & went to the Mifsisurrie River & lives now like Indians among them."
" Started at 9 AM the Indians being very troublesome to us last night was obliged to give them some Brandy to be at peace with them, they will do nothing this year but running from House to House begging as I now understand that there is another Company from came in this year with Eight Canoes in opposition to the old ones, we are now in distrefs for meat but we have as yet got plenty of Flour, but will soon be out if we do not soon get some meat."
" Started at 7 AM give two Indians that came after us two Guns to go a hunting but returned at night without any thing, served the men Grog as they have no meat they went on well this day"
" Started at 7 AM went on very well this day also gave them Grog etc. & Extra flour in lieu of meat, there is now six Indians with us but does not hunt but wanting to drink"
Oct. 6 1793
" self & John Richards went of to the plains to see if we could find any Beaffloes but was disappointed the Indians that went from fort du Eppinette drove every thing before them, I wound'd a Jumping Deer or Cabru? which keep us very late at night trying to get another Shot at him but lost sight of him when it turned dark, slept in the plains as the boats past where? we came into the River, had a bad night of it self very bad with pains in my bones in the Morning"
" the pain I had in my bones hindered me much from walking, the Crafts arrived at the two Canadian settlements at 2 PM: I arrived at 3 PM: went to pay them a visit, I heard that some Stone Indians Arrived on the other side I went to our Crafts at the same time the Canadians running over & taking every thing from the Indians, I manned a Boat and went over with my Gun in my hand to see what was going on among the Indians, I entered one of their tents & was presented with six pieces of meat, I then returned back and the most part of the Indians followed me & began to trade Brandy, they have been very expensive to me in the Course of the Night in Brandy in Particular, all the men up the whole night watching the Crafts etc."
" all the men resting themselves this morning I traded seventy pieces of half dry meat, received a visit from Cameron and Auggi this evening to excuse themselves for last night misconduct running before the Indians etc"
" having well considered to attempt to go farther would be a folly for me, this place being in the Center of this Country and in the midle among the Canadians, besides there is no wood above this place where we can build a durable house, the Canadians is so weavering in their disposition that they never make a Constant settlement in one place, this make the Natives wander about in a like manner, it is impofsible for me to divid ourselves this year as we have no place made to put the Goods or ourselves in Security"
" all hands at work to build a place to secure the Company's property, Robt Eunson & William Louttit preparing to work with the Pit saw some gathering Stones, John Sutherland taking care of the Goods, self at work at the house etc"
" all hands as yesterday at 10 AM I ordered William Corrigal & William Kirknefs to take stones from the River side up the bank to Dry the distance of 4 yards from 10 AM to 2 PM they both thro thirty small stones up the bank, I give Grogg to those that work well but to them I gave none. willam Corrigal came to me at work and ask what he would do with them stones, I give him in Answer that I told him that Already, he said he would leave them where they were as he got not his Allowance in Grog like the rest, I told him if he had work'd like the rest he would be served in the same manner, he gave very Insolent Answer which put me in a pafsion to Streik him with a Willow I had in my hand, then John Sutherland began to take his part but took no notice of him, as I told he was not worth my while to listen to him, this has been his custom all the Journey which prevents me to consult him in any thing in publick businefs"
" all hands at work except William Corrigall who I put of Duty till he asks pardon of the Honble Hudsons Bay Company for his Neglect of Duty, his beheaviour on the Journey was very unbecoming several times Their boat was always behind, at 2 PM all hands on the bank at dinner an Indian Arrived from the plains who call'd as they saw three times to go aCrofs with the boat but did not listen to him, he went of to the Canadians who was glad that he would give them the trouble"
" all hands at work but William Corrigall who will not acknowledge his fault, at 4 PM all the property of the Honble Hudsons Bay Company was secured under a lock & Key, treated the men with Grogg on that Account, great storm of wind from the South west & very cold traded few pieces of meat from the Indians that went to the Canadians."
" all hands at work but Corrigal every one squaring timber for the Large House, Robt Eunson William Louttit Robt Taylor & James Brown at the long saws Robt Taylor & James Brown broke the Handle of one of the saws and is now tottaly uselefs, self went to mark a road for the Indians to come to the House"
Oct. 15 1793
" all hands as yesterday Will'm Corrigal this evening beg pardon of the company for his Neglect of Duty to the Company, served him his full Allowance with the rest of the men, and served them flour for ten days, received invitation which I refused to Answer for several reasons"
" all hands as yesterday self laying the foundation for the House, very cold weather at 5 PM I Baptised the house and call'd it Brandon House, treated the men with Grogg to drink the Company's health & succefs, as some Canadians is going up to Mr. Cuthbert Grant I wrote him the following letter Viz.
Mr. Cuthbert Grant
By your men I take the opportunity to let you know that the Indians speech to me since I came to Red River, that you said that you could take the Englishmens Goods from them if you chos'd it your number of men might enable you to do so, this was three times repeated to me by this Indians who came part of the way with your self this is not a Language as becoming a British Subject therefore I am fully persuaded that that old spirit of opposition so Notoriously known to some individuals is not yet extinguished, you may destroy trade but you cannot hurt or stopt the Honble Hudsons Bay Company from coming to their own undoubted right to oppose any intruder that may come from Canada.
this is from Donald Mackay"
" snow in the morning four men cuting Hay to make the chimneys & some squaring Logs for the Pit and some working at the house some Indians arrived at the house below some of the Creeks, self very bad with the cold"
" all hands at work in different manners and did work this day very well, the sawers in particular, the house is four feet high gave them some Grogg as they work hard"
" all hands at work as usual, fine weather, Robert Taylor sick, Magnus Cleat working for the men self still bad"
" being short of provisions I ordered all hands to work as usual at 2PM an Indian arrived with little provisions for which I paid him well & made him a handsome present"
" all hands at work this day Indians arrived at the Canadians houses none came to us but one young man who came to see us, he said that the Canadians has been with them this three days past to bring them into their houses, I gave him a dram & a pipe of Tobacco, he ask'd what I would give him for his meat, I told him what he would wish, he said Brandy, he went and took[stole?] thirty pieces of dry meat which cost me Eight Gallons of English Brandy, we are in great want."
" all hands at work Auggi the Canadian Master paid me a visit and said that the Indians told him that I said should he refused to give him back his meat that I would go & all of my men to bring it from?, I ordered John Sutherland and five men to go to the plains and try to bring in with them any Band of Natives they may meet"
" This morning John Sutherland John Richards John Anderson Louis Jollycoeur James Slatter and Magnus Yorston went to the plains to Look out for Indians with few Goods, at 2 PM a Gang of Canadians came to cut wood within twenty yards of my house properly said the Company? I challenged Them and ask'd them what makes them come so near us. They said That if they choosed They would bring it from my Door etc. etc. I said should they attempt that, that they would return with broken bones. one of them advanced as if he meant to make a blow at me with a hatchet. I drew one of my pistles and told him and all the rest should they attempt to strick me with such a Barbarous Instrument that I would that moment in self defense Kill the first man who advanced an Inch farther. one James Moar one of the Companys servants I took with me to look on, he run away and left me by myself among them they were fifteen in number. at last they went of & left me, when I returned to my tent I gave James Moar a good beating for his Cowardice."
" very cold weather snow & frost, This morning the men could not work with the cold, the Canadians again came this morning nearer, I went & told them should they give me any more provokation that I would certainly chastise them & force them to comply to the rules presented by law & justice, they went of to their Master who in short time came to me asking what was my reason for stoping his men from cuting wood where they pleased etc. I told him that neither him or them should encroach so much upon me as to cut wood about our house, then he ask'd leave to cut few Stock heads as there was none about his own house, I gave him leave to cut few as I was in want of such myself, in two hours afterwards I heard them cuting behind my house, I went to see what wood they were cuting & I found them cuting down every thing in their way, I called all hands and began to cut a track to divid our Ground from theirs, I told them should they Attempt to pafs this track that they must stand the Consequence of being fired at from our house & said this is my last warning to them, very strong wind from the West & very frosty weather the River shut up"
" great storms of wind from the West & very frosty weather the men at work but very slow their fingers in Their mouths, got the Boats hauled up & secured from the Winter storms, they Covered the Canoes with Grafs etc, self at work & cut one of my fingers terribly."
" all hands at work great storms as yesterday served the men flour for ten days our meat is very short poor?, This evening arrived an Indian & his family he is an Indian from Lake Lapluis and a proper Villain, he brought Eight Beaver skins with him, he was very troublesome to me in the night he wanted Debt but got none as There is too many houses now on the River, he is a Capt. among the Canadians."
" all hands at work as we are all almost starved with the cold and will be the same soon with hunger if no supply of provisions does not come from the plains, sent off the Indians we finished puting up any more Logs on the Large house and is ready for the Coupples?"
" all hands at work as usual very cold all these three days past, got the upper Beams on the house."
" all hands at work our meat is out again very cold weather the men murmuring much now."
" last night at 8 PM John Sutherland came from the plains but found no Indians, Atho' the Canadians bring in Indians every day, he left the rest of the men behind hauling meat of an Elk which John Richards Killed yesterday morning, They arrived this day at 9 AM & very bad meat it is a beast that was a long time wound'd, our men knows nothing about building I must be with them myself or else nothing will be done."
Oct. 31 1793
" all hands at work as usual got some of the coverings on the house this day very cold Wind from the East North East self very ill with a fever & cannot come out of my bed."
Nov. 1 1793
" the men as yesterday self very ill, at night an Indian arrived with two Beavers skin & flesh I paid him & sent him of to kill more as he says"
" the men at work as usual began to build a house for the men where they are to Cook etc. and to Lodge the? Indians as I cannot trust fire? in the Large house but in my own room as the Goods is to be Lodged in the big house"
" all hands at work as usual very bad weather finished covering the big house this evening & with much difficulty with the men for working on Sunday"
" This morning Mr. Cameron sent for two men to bring meat from his hunters tent the rest of the men at work - snowy weather all day posponing building my Chimney."
" This being the day so much distinguished for a holly Day I ordered the men to burn a pope? in the face of all the Canadians, this the men did not wish to do so I relinquished my Idea as it might create some thing of Consequence etc. Arrived an Indian & four women in the evening with some meat but no furrs very cold weather."
" all hands at work the two men returned with meat served the men flour for Eight Days from this Date"
" all hands at work some building my Chimney and some building the men's house, very cold weather, in the evening an Indian Arrived with five Beaver Skins"
" The men at work as usual, at 2 PM two Indians and four women Arrived from the plains with furrs & meat, They are Stone Indians, in the night Ronald Cameron sent an Indian who could Speak Stone Ind. Language to speak and debauch the Indians from me, but I soon put an end to that, I went to the tent & up set his Kettle with his Rum & told him I would do the same to him who sent him, we had a double watch all this night."
" this morning Cameron came to me to ask for what I have upset his Rum that this was the greatest afront I could be guilty of etc. I told him I would do so & so again & again should he come himself with it to draw the Indian from my house we had very high words before he went of, traded with the Indians seventy-six Skins in all sort of Peltry? Clothed the Leader is name is the Cran."
" give the men Grogg last night and this morning at work as usual had a visit from Auggi the Canadian Master very cold weather this long time hinders our work."
" the men at work as usual very cold weather John Sutherland and James Moar sick this two Days, self now is able to work Thank God for it."
" The men at work as usual at 9 AM three Indians Arrived with three letters for Tobacco & Brandy on a Parole, these letters was given by Mr. Robt. Grant, at 2 PM the Lake Lapluis Indian arrived with meat for Brandy paid him well for what he gave me & sent him off before the rest would Arrive the three Indians slept at the house this Night very cold weather."
" this morning I sent off John Anderson & the three Indians with Tobacco & Brandy, but Auggi was before them to meet the Indians, they were all coming to me but he debauched some of them with Rum etc. They had no furrs worth taking any Notice of them but they had plenty of provisions the Major part came to us, I Cloth'd the Capt. that came to me, at night he went to the Canadians Houses and his wife came to me saying that the Canadians was beating the Capt. & burning his Cloth etc. I went off with ten men and ask what was the reason of Abusing my Captain, Auggi said it was Jealousy among themselves, I came of satisfyed & brought the Capt. with me."
" began to trade at 10 AM and a bad trade it was nothing but provisions finished at seven PM cold weather."
" all the Indians went off and all hands at work very cold Day some of the Canadians roving about us"
" all hands at work Robt. Taylor & James Brown Broke the pit saw, it is uselefs to bring tools to this Country to be wrought by men who knows nothing about working with them, served them Grog as I find them all ill pleased for making them work so hard."
" all hands at work to finish the house, fine weather, Robert Eunson sick geting ready a flag staff"
" Put up our flag staff and at night treated the men in Grog, John Richards behaved very unbecoming."
Brandon House Journal
Nov. 19 1793
" this morning received the following letter from Mr. Cuthbert Grant from Cob OHomme? VIZ. River Tremblent 30th Oct. 93
I received your favor the 16 Inst and you give me leave to tell you that I do not understand the contents of it - You say that the Indians told you that I would take the Honble Hudsons Bay Company's property from you as I had more number of men, In this I cannot find common sense, you also say you are fully convinced that the old spirit of opposition so Notoriously known is not yet Extinguished - I have to answer this that I? study my own Interest and let every one else do the same, you say that if I was to consider my former abuse to every Individual I must now think I have not to do with Pity Adventurers, as to Petty Adventurers, I bear every man respect according to his own merit and behaviour, and not according to the Consequence of his Employers, in the next place you say that a Copy of your letter to me will be transmitted to the Board of Commitee of the Honble Hudson's Bay Company London, you may transmit a Coppy of this along with it if you please, in the meantime
I am yours etc. (signed) Cuthbert Grant"
Both letters have the word "Extract" written in the margin.
Nov. 20 1793
" this morning a band of Beaffloes came in sight of the House, a tent of Stone Indians Arrived which drove them off, the Leader & tent? I clothed to induce them to come with his trade but is a sett of Beggars & Thieves"
" at 10 AM the Indians began to trade but they trade no furrs meat they brought plenty fine weather."
" The Indians still drunk with Liquor they got from the Canadians Magnus Cleat making coats, this ? our Saw good for Nothing and a Shame to see it along side of the Canadians lincel? Saw they bring in, the Natives laugh at ours."
"this morning a Canadian came to me asking if I would go to see a sick man, I went and was informed that a trader of the Hon'ble Hudsons Bay Company was in opposition to Mr. Cuthbert Grant at River tremblent"
"Sunday this is the first I could keep a holly day since I went from O:H: very cold weather"
"This morning self went a hunting and Kill'd a fat Cow. it drifted in the plains very cold weather."
" sent Eleven men for meat the rest as usual They arrived with the meat at 3 PM cold weather."
" this morning finished the trading room the men at work as usual"
" this Morning a Packet went to the upper settlements from the Canadian houses with Liquor etc. etc."
" all hands at work as usual geting firewood etc. etc. fine weather"
" in Commemoration of St. Andrew the men had a holly day served them Grogg. Invited my Neighbours to? dinner Mr. Cameron Accepted but Auggi had not the polite? to return an Answer, This may be imparted to his Ignorance"
" very cold weather some Indians arrived they had nothing but meat."
" self a hunting calm weather deprived? me from any Succefs"
" the men at work some for firweood some Cleaning their Cabins"
" self a hunting & Kill'd a Cow, it drifted so much that I could not load my Gun Again."
" sent two men for meat this morning returned at 5 PM very bad weather."
" the men at work as usual calm weather."
" all hands at work self a hunting but bad weather depreived? me of any Succefs."
" self a hunting Kill'd a Cow, came home at 6 PM ordered the men to go for meat in the Morning ask'd Willm Corrigal if he had the Sledges ready he said he had not I ask'd him what was he doing this four days past he give no Answer this deserves to be taken Notice of it."
" self a hunting Killed a Cow bad weather."
" the men for meat came home at 5 PM"
" This morning self & John Sutherland went a hunting John Sutherland lost the Key of the provision house came home at 7 Pm no Succefs being calm."
" This morning an Indian Arrived who demanded two men to go & bring meat from his tent, I sent John Richards John Anderson & James Brown & two sledges to bring what they could get, fine Calm weather & Clear."
" early this morning I went a hunting took James Slatter with me very cold weather Killed four Beaffloes Three Cows & one young Calf, came home & sent all hands for the meat I left Slatter behind to take care of the meat from the Wolves & to make it ready for the men on their Arrival, the men returned at 7 PM well Loaded & fatigued."
" all hands for meat this morning as they could not bring home all last night, at 4 PM John Richards & the other two men Arrived with two Indians with meat only they are from Lake Lapluis the most Rascals in the Country they were very troublesome all Night."
" sent them off with some Brandy & give them some Debt as they are Accustomed to it. very cold weather self very indisposed without rest all night."
" self a hunting & killed two very fat Cows when Slatter came to me Acquainting me that there was some Indians Arrived at the house left Slatter to put the meat in a secure place & self set of for the house & found them to be Stone Indians very quarli? all the time I was absent came home at six PM very fatigued"
" this morning traded with the Indians which was but very little, they made a present of some meat to get Brandy but I refused it till they would give some furrs, but when I spoke they immediately started & went to take it to the Canadian house I was under the Necefsity to give them Brandy for it, the men for meat that was killed yesterday very bad weather."
" self a hunting but the snow was so hard that I could not come near them came home At 2 PM an Indian with two Women Arrived had fourteen Wolves skins & some meat was obliged to give them a Large Keg of Indian Brandy"
" This morning finished trading with the Indians and then went a hunting & found a Cow that I wounded yesterday and is very fat The meat little turned? came home & sent the men for it. the Canadians was out this day a Gang of them driving the Cattle away"
" This morning broached a Keg No. 43 of Brandy and found it to be English Brandy made several tryals but could not bear more water? than Common English Brandy. This is the fault of the Steward at Albany who fills them Kegs with the Brandy, it has not been damaged on the Journey for it smells the same as the English Brandy - good weather & Calm"
" all hands at cuting firewood for Christmafs holly day's, self employed in Arranging the ware house etc. soft weather, The Canadians is still Striving to Drive the Cattle away from this place, but as soon as I can I shall give them a little fright about this work to stop their proceedings for I am now convinced that they are a sett of Vagabonds of a Mallicious Disposition to Starve & Distrefs us if they can."
" two Canadians from the Misisurrie River arrived at the Canadian house with great quantity Beaffloe Robes They came to me to ask if I would buy horses I said I would they went & brought two which had all their back broke I told them that they are well come to take their horses to them who got Their best Cargo & trade them with them etc."
" This morning I went a hunting at 2 AM but the Canadians has driven all the Cattle away that was about this place I returned at 8 AM; and at 2 PM a Band of Stone Indians arrived some went to the Canadians & the Major part came to me fine weather."
" last night was the troublesom more than any I ever Experienced, I was twice near to be Stabbed by a Stone Ind. after drinking two quarts of Indian Brandy and did not give as much as a piece of meat, he still would insist on geting more which I so peremtolly refused him without he would pay for it he then Drew his knife which he had concealed in his Sleeve and made a push at me which I fortunately warded off only cuting one of my fingers my pafsion got the better of my reason I immediately knocked him down & dragged him down stairs & put him under the care of four men, the rest was very troublesom but Thank God no Mischief happened, to be an Indian Trader is the meanest & most dangerous businefs upon the face of the Earth, God Grant that I may return to my Native Country and all the Beaffloes of the N.W. will not Induce me leave it."
" this morning with great trouble I finished with the Indians and got them off, when they were going away the Indians that went to the Canadians came to ours drunk & telling them how poor was the English that they could not give them a drop going away, some of them came back again & told me so, I was obliged to give them a little, all this makes dreadful Expences & no furrs, trade is now ruined."
" fine weather the men diverting them selves being Christmas holly day's Agreed with a Canadian to hunt for me at the rate of Eight Beaver skins for a fat Cow & six for an ordinary one six a good Elk six very good Bull for flesh skin & all, and every Jumping Deer four, but that my men is to bring it from where he kills them"
" the men has their holly day's none at work very fine weather received a visit from the Canadian Masters."
" self a hunting went about twelve Miles but did not see a Single beast, the Canadians is every day out driving them away as Their hunters Kill'd plenty when the Cattle was near and as I have not one to hunt they do this to Starve me if they can for I cannot go far off."
" self a hunting killed three Bulls & a Cow which I thro away Except the Cow which is good, came home very late at night being Eight oClock after noon."
" self a hunting and killed a Cow and a Calf & very fat both came home at half past Eight in the after noon."
" sent the men for the meat & come home at 6 PM"
Jan. 1 1794
" all the men diverting them selves all day being the first day of the New Year received a visit from the Canadians this morning at day break, fine weather."
" self a hunting killed two Beaffloes a Cow and a young Bull & fat but great distance off, on my arrival I found two young Indians Drunk at the house John Sutherland gave it them as he said to keep them going to the Canadian houses."
" sent the men for meat and gave the Indians what they wanted Tobacco and Brandy, this is now a General Custom the Canadians make so Large present to the Indians since we are in opposition to them that it is impofsible to believe it."
" self went a hunting to the South West to watch if any Indians would arrive from this quarter they Generally come, At 11 AM I peceived four people & many dogs coming from the west I immediately set of to meet them when I came up to them, they were Indians that used to go to the Canadians, I came home & was not long at home when an Indian arrived which stayed all night, very cold weather."
" This morning a band Arrived four men & six Women plenty of dogs etc. but no furrs, They are now so Accustomed to drinking that they will come in with two or three fox skins & some meat cold weather."
" Traded with the Indians what little they had they had some provisions & some Beaffloe skins"
" self a hunting calm weather Kill'd three Cows & very good came home at 7 PM much fatigued dragging the whole Day on a hard snow & very plain."
Jan. 8 1794
" sent all hands for meat at 11 AM two Indians maskego arrived with few furrs, Broached No.44 of Brandy and was not much better than English, at 10 PM Camerons hunter came to our house drunk and want Brandy from me, which I refused to give him without he had something to pay for it, he began to Abuse me, and said he must get Brandy as he give me some in the winter I told him that I well paid for all that I got from him & should? he wanted to be paid twice that I was not so great a fool as to give it, he then said that he would not go away till I should give him some, I got up to put him out and in geting him out at the room Door, he Drew his knife & very quick made a blow at me to give a Stabb but I warded it off & took the knife from him & Kick'd him down Stairs and ordered two men to bring him to his tent."
" The Indians drunk all day self preparing to send an Expedition up the River and to send some to see if they could find the Canadian track etc. etc. cold weather."
" this morning John Richards John Anderson David Brown and William Kirknefs went with this two Indians to bring some furrs from Their tents, they say that the Canadians takes it away from them as soon as they can kill any that they come to their tents with Brandy etc. and that they cannot keep it from them"
Jan. 11 1794
" sent off the Indians with what they wanted and self went a hunting. I have seen Three Indians going to the Canadians when I went off, on my returning home, I was informed that one of those Indians fired through our Boats. I considered this as an insult, and should I let it go unnoticed that they would do perhaps worse another time, and as some of our men was away on the road that those Vagabonds was going, Therefore I thought proper for myself and six men to go in pursuit of them and to take their Guns from them till they would promise faithfully to us that they would behave themselves for the future.
" at 7 PM I ordered James Brown, Louis Jollycoeur, William Loutit, James Slatter, Robert Taylor & Magnus Yorston to make ready and come with me to see if we could come up with those Villians & they all said they would not risk themselves to go after such Bad Indians, I three times ask'd if they would go or not they peremtorilly refused it. this sheweth what Cowards they are when hyrd, I cannot believe Umphreville's fine representation in their favour when the Forts was taken [in 1782?], he says that the men would fight if the governors would Allow them, I have to say that it is false, The Governor knew well what sort of men he had to depend on & that was their reason for giving up so easily."
" set of this morning at six AM in pursuit of those villians, and came to the place where they went off the Track of our men, I followed the Indians track about three Miles and looking behind me, I saw an Indian coming after me, I stopt to see who he was, he was a Brother to Cameron's hunter (I desired? John Easter who was the only man that consented to go with me) to ask the Indian where he was going, he said that he was going after the Indians for a gun that they promised him yesterday. I considered this as an Excuse for I was sure he was going to inform them that I was in pursuit of them for firing at the Boats. I turned off another road & Killed three Cows came home at eight oClock Afternoon much fatigued"
" sent all hands for meat and left some come home at 5 PM: John Sutherland is sick as he says; I hope the Intended Expedition up the River does not Occaision his illnefs. very cold weather, some of the men lost part of the meat on the way."
" this morning James Yorston finished a Sturgeon net of 47 Fathoms long. John Sutherland still keeps his bed I cannot find out what is the Matter with him."
" This morning a Stone Indian Arrived for Tob. etc. at 2 PM three men & five Women had no furrs but Beaffloe skins They were very troublesom to me all night I refused their Beaffloe skins which does afront them much as the Canadians takes any?"
" Traded this morning all trifling things the Indians had & when they went away they drove the Cattle away from about this house very cold weather this day"
" self and three men went out a hunting and to see if any Indians was on the road of the men that went with the two Indians, calm weather & bad for hunting self killed a young Bull & good meat, John Richards & the other three men Arrived from the Indian tent with Sixty Beaver skins, he was near being killed J. Rich'd by his own Gun who bursted in his hands as he fired at a Beaffloe The Natives says now that the Canadians has a better Guns than ours, self come home at 7 Pm. The rest at 6?"
" sent six men for meat & came home at 4 PM self very indisposed with pain in my breast, Calm weather."
" very fine weather and calm self looking if I could see any Cattle but the Canadians is out every day driving them off from about us here, They cannot conceal their bad dispositions."
Jan. 20 1794
" at midnight last came the Father of this Vagabond Indian who fired at our boat with his youngest son and three Women, brought ten Beaver skins to make peace between me and his son for firing at our boats etc. I asked what was his reason for doing so, he said that he was Drunk & did not know what he was doing. I told him that that was no excuse for doing Mischief. I took the furrs & paid him for it and put out his son till he would make it good the Damage he has done, at 4 PM two Stone Indians arrived for Tobacco etc. we had much trouble with those Indians who arrived last night They are Lake Lapluis Indians."
Jan. 21 1794
" This morning John Richards James Brown Louis Jollycoeur James Slatter and Andrew Taylor went to the Indian tent where they were before to see if they killed any more furrs, as the Canadians, as the Indians said would take it from them as soon as they will kill any fine weather and calm self making out the little outfit for the Intended Expedition."
" This morning I ordered William Louttit Robert Taylor to the long saw, they asked me for what I wanted so many Sledges to be made I answered them that I was not obliged to tell them all my designs, went a hunting but no Luck the Canadians Drove every Beast they can see, This is now Their Study to do Mischief to me."
" self a hunting and killed two a Cow & and young Bull very cold weather The most severest that we have had this winter The Indians who came to the Canadians house was very troublesome to us last night wanting brandy but got none as they brought me nothing, in their drunken politre? they kill'd one of themselves & left it for the Canadians to be burried?"
" sent the men for meat exceeding cold weather Will'm Louttit & Robert Taylor bent the pit saw, now they have no saw to work, they are afraid to go up River with Goods etc."
" self a hunting very cold weather got my face Frost bit, the Canadians was out before me & drove the Cattle away."
" self a hunting but did not see any the Canadians is again out driving them, at 4 PM an Indian with his family arrived he had four wolves skins & four Beaffloe Coats and some provisions, this is now a Custom to come in with triffles. Their Expences is as great as if they bring a hundred skins."
" This morning Robert Taylor came to me and said that they could not work with the pit saw, this Clearly proves my opinion so as to obstruct the Expedition up the River."
" This morning Robert Taylor & William Louttit came to me and said that they could not work with the saw I ask what was the Matter, They said that it would not cut Strait, I sent for Robert Eunson who pretends to know every thing relating to the Pit saw and he said he could do no more to it, I then took it Myself & give it a sett Strighting it and Sharpening it with much Labour before I got it all done, then sent them to work again & told them should they spoil it that I would prosecute them for damages done to the Company etc."
" this day Robert Taylor & Will'm Louttit finished? Boards for the Sledges very Cold weather and Calm."
" self a hunting no Succefs being very Calm at six PM John Richards and the men that went with him came back and got only two Beaver skins for Their trouble This is a bad prospect of any trade this year."
" self a hunting & killed a Cow & a Calf very calm weather and Cold, the Canadians was out as usual."
" sent Eight men for meat, self & John Sutherland packing the Goods for River Qui'Appelli fine weather this day."
" making out some Instructions for John Sutherland and Arranging the men to be ready Wednesday next at 8 AM."
" Monday, this day finished packing Goods and provisions for River Qui'Appelli fourteen men & Sledges, John Sutherland as Master not Included, in Examining the Brandy I found Keg No.50 not proof and is not much better than English Brandy found No. 41 and 65 proof and sent them up the River."
" geting ready the men with Shous & snow shous etc. at night after every thing was ready I gave the men a treat. it would puzzle the greatest philosophers of this Age to hummour those men for realy they are a set of Loons with out life or Spirit the best of them, fine weather."
" this morning a Stone Indian Arrived for Tobacco etc. in two hours afterward the Gang Appeared, when a band of Canadians was running to meet them as if they were mad. I ordered six of our men to go and watch should the Canadians offer to take the Indians things from them or not and if they would to come back and Acquaint me but the Natives would not allow them to touch their Commodities - they all Arrived at our house, They brought about 50 skins in Peltry, the Canadians doing such dirty tricks makes the Indians think that their furrs is of more Value than what realy it is."
Feb. 6 1794
" This morning Started Mr. John Sutherland and James Anderson James Brown David Brown William Corrigall Peter Houston Louis Jolly Coeur William Kirknefs William Louttit John Richards James Slatter Andrew Taylor Robert Taylor James Yorston and Magnus Yorston to go to River Qui Appelle with Goods & provisions etc,. they took of provisions one Hundred and thirty pounds of flour & four Hundred pounds of dry meat & the Value of four Hundred Beaver the Indians went of at 3 PM cloudy weather & soft."
" self over hauling the goods as some misc? is got up the top of the house, the Canadians is all now in the plains and will gather all the furrs if they can see it for they have Oceans of Brandy with them they bring in nothing but Rum but very little dry Goods - fine weather."
Feb. 8 1794
" overhauling the provisions as the weather is soft. particularly the Dry meat as it might get Damaged, I found some Green meat so, and was obliged to thro it away. I compute my fresh meat this Day to be above twelve Thousand pounds dry ditto to be four Thousand and fat in Bladders about two Thousand pounds, fine weather & very soft."
" self went to see if I could see any Cattle but did not see as much as one, very soft weather & calm."
" self a hunting and killed a Cow, at 12 oClock the weather changed to be very cold and drifted so much in the plains that I could Sccarcily find my way home."
" sent the men for meat and very cold day I have only four men at the house now as the rest is above."
" exceeding Cold weather self a hunting and killed Three Cows and one young Bull, at night one of the Vagabonds from Lake Lapluis arrived with only one Beaver skin and undrefsed he owes me two Beaver skins but to be at peace with him I give him two quarts of Ind. Brandy & sent him off."
" a terrible storm and very Cold this morning I sent all the four men for meat and they made three trips this day this cold brings back again the Cattle."
" very cold this day Also self examining the furrs etc. There is no more than six Hundred made Beaver at the house in all sorts of Peltry, This two oppositions Destroys the trade one must now pay Double of what it used to be and more than the Value of a skin This year but it cannot continue so very long for it must ruin trade tottally."
"very cold weather received the news of our men being very near River Qui Appelle by the Canadians."
" self a hunting and killed a Cow very poor, they are now turning poor by the cold weather cannot get enough to eat."
" self a hunting and killed Nine Cows of which seven is very Good took some meat home this evening & secured the rest but two Cows which I thro away for the Wolves."
" The men for meat all day and made six trips as it is near, They brought home about One thousand six hundred pounds fresh meat this very day."
" fine weather an Indian Arrived with a letter for Tob. and some Brandy etc. traded with one of the Canadians twelve skins in wolves and foxes."
" very bad weather blowing and drifting all day, self making Instruments for Defence should we be attacked by any enemy during the mens absence."
" terrible weather snowing and Drifting all day The men could not go out doors all day to work."
" very cold weather and stormy"
"sharp weather but Clear."
" fine soft weather and Calm self a hunting and Kill'd a Cow, the Canadians is again out after them"
" sent the men for meat Cloudy weather & soft."
" This day arrived Peter Houston William Louttit James Slatter Andrew Taylor and James Yorston from River Qui Appelle by whom I received the following letter VIZ:
To Don'd McKay Master at Brandon House
We arrived at the fork the 16th Inst. and the 17th self and one man went to the south settlement, as far as I can understand no Indians comes there to trade but few Afsiniboins and they bring Nothing but Beaffloe skins and meat this year, the reason that all the traders gives that the Indians do not hunt is that the Beaffloes and the traders is too many this year, I have put up alongside of the two Settlements on the North River as I understand that some Sautties and Creeks comes there, have sent you sixteen Wolves Which I traded on the Journey , the reason I did not send Louis Jolly Coeur is that the distance is farther than we Expected, besides I imagine I shall not have much need for an Interpreter here.
I remain Dear Sir Your Most Obedient Servant
This evening two Indians arrived with ten Beaver Skins for Brandy and Tobacco etc. They were very troublesome all Night the Canadians pouring Rum to them like water, as they understand that the Indians has some furrs at their tents, they want some English men to return with them with Brandy which I promised them I would next morning."
Feb. 27 1794
" sent of this morning Magnus Cleat Robert Eunson and John Easter with a large Keg of Indian Brandy to trade as much as They could for it, The two Indians went to the Canadians houses and got Drunk Again, The men went on their Journey to their tents, I never seen such a day, there were about thirty Indians about our house drunk wanting Brandy and had nothing to give for it, I was under the Necefsity to give some, being Almost at war with them, the Canadians setting them on to get Brandy from the English man, as This will shorten our Liquor to Answer better their views etc."
" this morning some Indians came for Brandy which I am Determined not to give let the Consequences be as it will without they pay for it, at 2 PM they all went to Sleep which restored peace, Thank God for it."
" this morning some of the Indians went away and some continued drinking, fine weather & Calm."
" some Indians still about & troublesome to us they are Indians who always goes to the Canadians."
" all the men being this while resting themselves & this morning ordered them to cut firewood, but they seemed very unwilling and very little They have done all day, self Examining the Guns as theirs locks seem very bad and I found it so - There is some screws that has nothing holding it but one turn of a Screw etc. The Indians says that our Guns formerly were better than the Canadians but now ours is worse. Their Barrells much thinner Their Stocks soon breaks etc. etc."
" the men cuting firewood in the evening arrived a Stone Indian with his family he had nothing but Beaffloe Skins and some provisions he wanted Brandy as the Canadians gives Rum for such Articles, John Richards & William Corrigall arrived from River Qui Appelle by which I received the following letter
Feb. 27 1794
To Mr. Don'd Mckay Master at Brandon House
According to my promise I have sent down John Richards and William Corrigall our house being finished 27th Inst. I am very sorry to Acquaint you That I have got no trade since I came here neverthelefs I am in hopes of getting a little before the Spring is Done, Mr. Cuthbert Grant arrived here 25th Inst. and payed me a visit, he Acquaints me that the trade is over at this place this season but I imagine he has his reason for saying so, he perhaps thinks it may stopt me from sending for more Goods, I am yet uncertain what I may want should I want any more Goods, I think it will be Necefsary for the preservation of the Comp'y property to send as many men as you can spare, I will not want any more provisions from you I wish you good trade
I remain with respect your Obedient Humble Servant
(signed) John Sutherland
Mar. 5 1794
" this morning after trading with the Indians the little provisions he had, he went to the mens house with what he had and sat by the fireside, he began to tye up his powder when a spark communicated to the powder and set it off, it blow off the roof of the mens house & gave a Dreadful Shake to the large house, it burn four of our men, himself & wife but the Child was fortunatly saved from any hurt, fine weather."
" self repairing the Pit saw and got it in a condition to work with it, some of the men Snow blind since they Arrived from River Qui Appelle soft weather & Cloudy"
" this day arrived two Stone Indians with their families brought one wolf and one fox skins and some provisions, the Indians will not hunt as they can get plenty now between so many houses as there is now on this River at present there is Nine Settlements on this very river this year, Brandy is the cry of every one."
Mar. 8 1794
" having an opportunity of looking out this day I found that the Canadians has made a new road so as to avoid me seeing the Indians who might Arrive but I will put a watch on this road while I expect any Indians Arriving from that quarter, our men arrived from the Indians tents and brought only sixteen Beaver skins for the Large Keg of Brandy."
Mar. 9 1794
" some straggling Indians comes from the Houses below and cannot learn what keeps them so long about this place, fine weather."
" the men at work William Louttit & Robert Eunson at the long saw cuting Keels for the boats self cleaning & Examining the Guns they are very bad polished the Guns of 92 in particular."
" self at the long saw as Robert Eunson says he is sick the rest clearing a place for repairing the Boats, one man would do what they have all done this day, some Indians arrived but has not one skin but Beaffloe Robes and provisions Those Articles I do not now want as I have plenty of provisions"
" this morning arrived a band of Stone Indians but they have not a Single Skin, it does not signify to tell them not to come without furrs for they do not mind it as they can get every thing they want from the Canadians for provisions and Beaffloe Robes, some method must be contrived to make those Indians kill furrs or otherwise trade is tottally destroyed."
" this Gang sett off this day, but some Straggling Indians from the houses below roving about us a man arrived at night for Tobacco etc. soft weather."
" this morning arrived an Indian who brought about twenty wolves and foxes who has not been at any house since the fall, he seems to be a Good Indian for which reason I Clothed him and sent him of contented - fine weather."
" at 2 AM this morning five men of Sautties Indians came drunk from the Canadians houses and wanted to force my door for Brandy, I was obliged to get up and threatened them, should they persist that I would be under the Necefsity to commence hostility as their behaviour was deserving of such treatment, they went away Abusing me to the highest degree of contempt, at 2 PM a Band of Stone Indians Arrived five tents and twenty men besides women, but not a single fox skin, They say that they are persued by their Enemies and cannot settle to kill any furrs, they say that their enemies last spring Killed about twenty tents of their tribe, fifty nine men & ninty women besides Children They say that not so much as one man Escape the Slaughter, They are Strongly requesting that the English men would bring four pieces of Cannon so as to frighten their enemies from Advancing and Encroaching on Their land, I am much of opinion that some small Cannon would be of more Service than so many parcells of Dry Goods, They would make the Natives pay more respect to us than what they do, and perhaps have the Effect on the Enemy the Indians supposed it would it is certain that the report of a big Gun could be heard a great distance off on this plain Country."
" last night at 9 PM this Band of Indians made a present of about ten Beaffloe Robes to get Brandy, I told them that they know very well I would not take Beaffloe Robes - let them bring me Beaver Wolves foxes etc. I would give them their Brandy they said that they were afraid of the Enemy. I said that I was as much afraid to give them Brandy without I would get what would pay for it to the Great Chief who sent this Brandy so far to get Beaver skins etc. I ordered the men to bring their trade away to their tents, they went with it to the Canadians who gave them Rum for it, This is a Valuable Article to them as they sell it in Canada to the Inhabitants for forty shillings each Robe, This prevents British Goods from being consumed in Lieu of this Skins which is a hurt to the British trade."
" this morning twelve Canadians with twelve Sledges went to go to the settlements above this place with Goods etc. the men Clearing the ground for the Stockheads self looking for few good Oak trees to build a sort of a Boat for the people who remain in land this Summer, soft weather."
" last night the Canadians made drunk all the Indians about this place trading Beaffloe Robes they have not as much as one fox skin They were very troublesome in the Night to us."
" snow last night and is very cold this day."
" This day at 2 PM a Capt. of a Band of Stone Indians arrived, they had three foxes but plenty of Beaffloe skins and provisions they made a present of the three foxes & six Beaffloe Robes I was obliged to take it, for if I refuse it they will go to the Canadians with it and no Indians will come to me at all for they will bring their furrs & Beaffloe Robes to the house they go to. The Capt. says that he was at war all winter & that that is the reason that he did not brought furrs, but they all can find Excuse."
" last night and all this day rained very hard The Indians drunk about the house & very troublesome the bad weather stopt them from going away, three young men arrived enquiring if I would take any Beaffloe Robes I told them if they would bring few furrs, I gave them Tob. and little Brandy & sent them off."
Mar. 22 1794
" this morning Mr. Cameron came to ask for a few Boards to make a Coffin for a Canadian who died last night. I ordered John Richards to make it as they have no Carpenter to do it, the Indians went of this morning."
Mar. 23 1794
" This morning the two tents of Indians who was tenting at our house this three weeks went of as they say to make beat meat. self went to see if I could meet any Indians with any furrs coming from the Northward - fine Day."
" This morning Robert Taylor and Louis Jolly Coeur Arrived from River Qui Appelle who brought the following letter from John Sutherland VIZ:
To Don'd Mckay Master at Brandon House
According to my promise I have sent down Robert Taylor & Louis Jolly Coeur but I am sorry to acquaint you that there is Scarcily any thing to be got here except Beaffloe skins of which I could get plenty I have only got 30 or 40 MB? Beaver skins as yet, I wish you better Succefs, the Indians says they are going a hunting now but what succefs they may have I cannot tell you - I have sent you a list of the things I may want, I expect a little trade in the spring but I am not sure of it, I therefore leave it to your Superior Judgement to send it or not, you will please to let me know how we are to come down in the Spring from this place, I have been requesting your friend Mr. Peter Grant if he could take us down and our things in his Canoes and that you & him would Agree about the price when you meet - he says he will, if you do not sent John Richards send John Easter with the return of the men I have sent you, which I hope you will send as soon as pofsible for we are too few men here in so small a place of Defence, Dear Sir you was saying that you would perhaps ask me to stay all summer in land at Brandon House, I therefore take this opportunity to Acquaint you, that I will not stay all Summer upon no terms whatsoever at the same time I wish you Great Succefs & a happy meeting remains
with respect Dear Sir
Your humble Servant
(signed) John Sutherland"
" this day arrived a band of Indians who brought nothing but meat and Beaffloe Robes, There is five Leaders & six young men four women & six Boys, I was presented with twenty six Beaffloe Robes for to get Brandy, if I will not take it they will go to the Canadians who will pay the Value of three Beaverskins each, I mean now to take them should I burn them for this year, and should the Company find fault with me, I cannot help it as no Indians will come to us if we do not take every thing the Canadians take from them, I shall refer to the ? Chief what is to be done in this Case as it must be taken into Considerationfor the future."
" this morning some of the Indians went off after we had a troublesome night being drunk and quarrellsom, the Indians belonging to the Canadians came about the house to take Their Brandy from ours, I was obliged to keep a Double Wach all Night I had enough to do to Keep them from Murdering one another, we have seen Geese and Swans this day pafsing."
" this morning some Indians went off and some Still Drinking the Canadians pours them Liquor like water so as to make the Indians come to them, besides what they do send into the plains to them, they bring nothing else but Rum only Tob. & Ammunition & Coutlery & Cloth is of no Value in this part of the Country it is now much al?d for the worse since I was here nefore but it is impofsible to continue."
" this morning John Richards put the New Boat on the Stocks The men finished the Ice house for fresh meat in the Summer for those who will stay inland."
" This morning sett all hands to Cover with Boards the Handguard? on the provision house but could not finished it this Night, some Indians went of this day."
" Necefsity obliged me to make the men finished the provision house being much Exposed to thieves."
" Put up on the loft two Thousand five Hundred pounds of Dry meat in pieces fine weather."
" This day Broached No. 51 a Keg of Brandy and is not much better than the Common English the Steward at Albany must have a hand in this businefs as the Liquor smells English Brandy This I find too often and I hope ? Chief will put a stop to it for the future it is too far to carry bad Liquor when good can be had?"
" all the men at work as usual, self examining the fresh meat and finds it turning very bad begins to rott."
" very dirty weather the men could not do any work this day."
" The men at work digging the trench for the Stockheads Robert Taylor Broke again the pit saw & is uselefs."
" set up few Stockheads this day cold weather."
" fine weather the most part of the River open to day."
" self trying to mend the long saw but it is not in my power as it is the handle that is broke The men raising Stockheads John Richards working at the New Boat."
" This morning John Richards put a false Keel to one of the Boats as we must now put it in the water The men raising Stockheads fine weather."
" last night and all this day rained very hard at 11 AM two Indians Arrived which brought thirty Beaver skins, the men fulled the Ice house to day for which I give them Grogg The Indians drunk."
" last night was a very troublesom one the Indians fighting & quarreling and wanting Brandy without ceasing at last I was obliged to thro one of them down stairs to put him off fine weather."
Apr. 11 1794
" the men raising Stockheads they cannot fix more than twenty between six of them for which I quarrell with them."
Apr. 12 1794
" this day I turned out two thousand pounds of fresh meat that was turned so bad that no person could eat, this warm weather will soon Spoill the whole which is a great lofs but I cannot help it the men raising Stockheads etc."
" last night at 11 PM The Vagabond family of Sautties came with four Beaver skins and brought back the Gun he took in Debt, he said it was not good, I said why then he took it away I took the four Beaver skins from him for the powder and Shot he got, he said that he had always got powder Shot & Tobacco from the Canadians for nothing and what was the reason that I would not do the same, I told him that he was well come to get every thing he wanted from the Canadians, for nothing if they chose to give it him, but that I would not do so, I sent him off without giving him a test of my Brandy as I know very well he gave his furrs to the Canadians."
" this morning it rained and snow all the rest of the Day the men could not work to day dirty weather."
" This is the most Dreadfull day we have had this year. it some times rained sometimes Snowing the men could not work any this day being so bad."
" all this morning it snow, at 12 oClock it Cleared up a little sent the men to work, paid the Old Women that was drying and cuting some of the Green meat by which means I saved a good quantity of it."
" very cold morning some time it snow another time rained the men could not work this day so bad."
" a most dreadfull weather with wind and rain it took some boards of the roof of the house The men was not able to work, Peter Houston was drying some meat in the tent as usual & by some Accident the Log tent took fire & burnt all the meat before it could be quenched."
" This morning self went a Crofs the River to watch should any Indians was coming down, at 9 AM I seen a band of Beaffloe, I went after them & killed two when they all started and I followed a little and perceived a very young Calf which I pursued and catched alive, I could I realy believe team him, but being in hurry to come back to sent men for meat, made me kill him, the mother I did not kill as I thought it too cruel to Kill them both, it was very easy for me to do it as the Mother would not go away till I killed the Calf and put it on my back, where she followed me a great distance."
Apr. 20 1794
" This morning one of our Captains Arrived who brought twelve Beaver Skins. I sent him of with Brandy I ought to give him for it six Gallons and powder Ball & shot Tobacco etc. this always goes for Nothing now the men tore the Large Flag in hoising it this morning by real Carelefsnefs. it is impofsible to Describe Their ill Natured dispositions and Lazy Sluggish Transactions since I enter'd Red River in particular, and what be their reason I cannot tell, I suppose it is for not getting Grogg presents etc. as they used to get from others."
" all hands at work self with two men making up beat meat and fat, of which I made one Thousand two Hundred and fifty pounds in twelve bags, the rest of the men raising Stockheads but very Slow about it, they raised twenty two between Eight men, John Richards at his work building the new boat as usual."
" very bad weather snowing sometimes rain the men could not work to day, it is very Extra ordinary such weather in this Country in this seaon of the year."
Apr. 23 1794
" this morning at 6 AM Mr. R. Cameron came and informed me that Auggi the Canadian trader went off with Liquor and two Indians in a Small Canoe to meet one of our Indians to whom I gave debt, and supplyed this Winter with every thing he was in want off I immediately set of after them by land, and soon came up with them when they have seen me they took into the woods except one Indian who ran along Shore to watch me and who kept always opposite to me on the other side of the River, till I went a great distance up the River when the Indian went into the plains to cut a neck of land where the River made a great turn, when I sent of two of the men that was with me to watch him & the Indian who was coming with the furrs I returned home to keep a watch on Augge's should he come back. at night when Dark I perceived a Canoe coming down the River and when she came opposite to me I hail'd her and ask'd who was there three times but would not answer I told I would fire if they did not Answer, I fired a shot in the air to frighten them, they then answered and pafsed"
Apr. 24 1794
" sent of a boat and seven men to meet the Indian and to Guard him from being Robbed by Augge's Indians, I am well informed that he hires Indians to do us mischief, I have very near being Killed by three of Augge's Indians this day in my room one drew his knife and made a blow at me but mifsed his Aim, when I thro him down the other two took hold of me & was very near being down when I got hold of the Door & call'd to the men for Afsistance but none came till I disengaged myself & got a Stick when two of them Run off the other beging pardon & to do him Charity"
Apr. 25 1794
" at 10 PM John Richards came in from drinking with the Indians, he began to abuse me for making him work? etc. I told him to go to his bed & sleep & tomorrow to speak about them things etc. he said he would not till he pleased, I went after him to the mens house when I told him again to go to bed, he in a moment run at me & thro me down & gave me two blows when I was down, the men came to take him away he ran out and went off to the Ind. tents at Augge's house, this man has made more damage to the Company up wards of Two Thousand pounds Sterling and is able to do great deal more should he be allowed to live in this Country as he can speak well their Language and advise them to do Mischief to the traders etc. very bad weather snow & drifting all day"
Apr. 26 1794
" this morning I was informed that John Richards went with the Indians to fort Du Eppinnette, I sent four men with a letter Advising him to return to do his Duty & that every thing would die in Oblivion - very bad weather to day"
Apr. 27 1794
" fine weather put out all the pounded meat to dry being fine Clear day at 2 PM the men returned from fort Du Eppinnette & told me that John Richards was with the Indians there, and said that he would never any more return and to let him alone that he will be an Indian"
" all hands at work self and two men making up beat meat and fat, of which I made One Thousand two Hundred & fifty pounds in thirteen Bags fine weather."
Apr. 29 1794
" all hands at work as yesterday self finished making beat meat and fat of which I made in all about two thousand Nine Hundred pounds in twenty nine bags, over haulled the furrs and has no more than Eight hundred and sixty four M Beaver - fine weather."
Apr. 30 1794
" all hands at work an Indian Arrived with five Wolves wanting brandy, I sent him off at night Cold weather & very strong Wind"
" all hands at work as usual self finishing the upper part of the Gateway very Strong wind from the south."
" This evening at 10 PM John Sutherland and men Arrived from River Qui Appelle with Mr. Peter Grant who brought them down in his Canoes, and who Civily has treated them all the time they were with him, at landing John Sutherland shott his thumb off firing with a pistle. Mr. Peter Grant is on his own Account in Opposition to the old Canadian North West Company, fine weather."
" all hands at work raising Stockheads etc. John Sutherland sick with the pain of his thumb fine weather."
" cold weather self preparing for the Journey to O:H, and over haulling the goods etc. fine weather."
" this morning sent Magnus Cleat & Robt Taylor to the Indian tents to tell John Richards to return to his duty, self went a hunting & kill'd a Beaffloe The men working slow put up only twenty two Stock heads."
" all hands at work self making up Bundles of furrs, the two men returned from John Richards & told me that John Richards said that he would never return to the Hudsons Bay Company's Service, I also learn that he speaks very bad to the Natives, Mr. Cuthbert Grant pafsed from Cote de homme?"
" all hands at work, self packing furrs an Indian who brought one wolf skin & four Elk skins? to get an Eight Gallon Keg of Brandy I refused to give him so much, he went to the Canadians & they gave it, they give Liquor at no Allowance."
May 8 1794
" this morning I received a visit from Mr. Cuthbert Grant, Invited him to dinner, as also Mefs Peter Grant M. Donald & Cameron and pafsed a Merry evening when they went away I went a piece of the way with them when was parting Mr. C. Grant invited me to take a Glafs of wine with him I went in and took a Glafs and bid him Good Night when these four Gentlemen stood up & told me they must detain me till I settle with Augge my Neighbour this last Winter for firing upon him in the Night the 23rd April last, I told them that it was not in Their power to Detain me as I had the Charge of the property of the Hon'ble Hudson Bay Company and should I be Guilty of any Crime that I would Surrender myself to justus where call'd for, however he detained me & made me Sleep with himself"
May 9 1794
" This morning Cuthbert Grant Call'd in two Witnefses of Canadians of which one was the Company's Servant Louis Jolly Cour & Swore that I told the men to fire upon Augge when I fired myself, but the two Witnefses on my side swore That I did not such a thing & that I challenge him three times & would not Answer - after this past Mr. C. Grant said if I would ask pardon of Auggie that he would set me at Liberty, I told him that I would Never do, as I thought that I did not more than my Duty, then he said that Augge would get me Kill'd & then run of Among the Natives, I told him I would Stand my Chances for that should he Attempt it. I told him I would fight him if That would satisfy him C. Grant said he was not qualified"
May 10 1794
" this morning Mr. Cuthbert Grant told me that I was at Liberty to go to do my Duty. I asked him for what he detained me so long without a warrant to do so, he said I know that better myself and that I may go away or stay as long as I choosed it. That he would have no more to do with me. I went home & began to prepare to go off, The men finished the Fort this evening, self took an Account of all the Goods etc. etc. remaining."
" Sunday keep this day a holly day, The only one we can have till next fall again."
" all hands packing the furrs, & finished it fine weather."
" geting ready for our Departure it was as much as I could do to prevail on John Sutherland to Stay as Summer Master and that is on Certain Conditions & Imposition."
" Loaded the Crafts self settling with the men & ready to start in the Morning Deposited all the Brandy in the Night within the fort."
" Started this morning at 5 AM came to Fort de Eppinette at 5 PM Mr. Cuthbert Grant was there & told me that John Richards said that the English would never come there again as he had the Key of the Road, Past & put up at the point below the fort & deposited 200 lbs Beat meat & fat for next fall."
" Started at 4 AM went about 90 Miles & put up where I deposited 200 lbs B meat ? man for next fall fine weather wounded an Elk but lost it in the woods."
" Started at 4 AM past Mr McNab's Island & Mr. Rofs's Fort, it Rain in the afternoon Deposited 200 lbs Beat meat and fat below the Indian Carrying place where we put up."
May 18 1794
" Started at 4 AM past Mr. Cuthbert Grant and all his Canoes put up at 6 PM fine weather"
" Started at 3 AM rain'd & Thunder'd in the evening met two Canoes of Canadians who came from Michellimacnac last year and Wintered in the south, but was drove by the Shewes or the South Stone Indians to River papina, and must return by way of Grand Portage came to the fork where Dumarry was campt waiting Mr. Cuthbert Grant, he made with three Canoes Load 12 Bundles of Furrs & Eight of Beaffloe Skins in the South Branch the Shewes attacked him also in the Winter - Deposited 200 lbs Beat meat and fat on the south side of the River."
" Started at 3 AM meet some Indians traded two Beaver skins & a Bear skin past them very good friend This was the Indian which the Canadians said was to kill me in pafsing them This what they have reported all the Winter"
" Started at 4 AM came to the bottom of the River at 4 PM - found Mr. Peter Grant there Campt & all his Canoes, rained in the afternoon."
" Started at 3 AM left Mr. Grant & his Canoes behind our Canoe Detained us much this day put up at Isle a la Bish in Lake Ouinipique."
" Started at 3 AM came over Lake Ouinipique and put up at Le Sieur Fort in River Ouinipique"
" it rain and thundered all night & this Morning but Started at 10 AM deposited 600 lbs beat meat & fat about the first fall coming Out"
" Started at 4 AM made five Carrying places Self cut all the rollers & cleared the paths this Day."
" Started at 5 AM came to the Carrying place of the Bonnet & took up the Eight Gallon Keg of Brandy which I deposited last fall at the Next fall James Yorston Broke the Stem of his boat against a Rock after I made several Signals to him not to come so near the fall, This Sheweth what little regard they give to what their Masters say to them, I have Experienced too much of this last."
" Started at 4 AM Strong wind in Lake du Bonnet with great difficulty I found the Enterance of the pinaway being twelve years since I past here."
" the Constant rain this day Detained us much all day self & four men went in a light Canoe to see the Carrying places if it was practicable to pafs the boats."
" Started at 3 AM came on very slow this day altho they had Grogg since we came to the Bonnet Carrying place, made Six Carrying places in the Pinaway"
" made three Carrying places when we come out of the Pinaway & at 11 Am came to the Grand Rapid put up at the Next Carrying place."
" Started at 5 AM made three Carrying places of which two was very bad, The water very high makes it worse in some places put up at 7 PM."
June 1 1794
" Started at 6 AM made two Carrying places & come to where I Deposited two kegs of Flour last fall I do not spare Grogg so as to get to Portage Du lisle before the Canadians put up at 6 PM fine weather"
" Started at 3 AM came to Portage Du lisle House where Mr John Mckay & four men was staying all Summer and well great Numbers of Indians tenting about 3 Miles above the House."
" Stay to repair our boats as some was Stoved on the Journey"
" Started at 1 PM came to the first Carrying places fine weather"
" Started at 5 AM made the three Carrying place & past the track of the five Carrying places Strong Wind a head"
" rained all night & this day was Detained by it served the men some Flour that was Deposited last fall"
" rain Thunder & lightening all Day came to where Mr. James Sutherland Wintered last year put up there"
rain and strong wind till 10 AM when it moderate a little came to Uskabegevoin & put up at the three falls at 8 PM"
" Started at 3 AM made the three falls Carrying places fair Wind came to the long Carrying places below Paquaishmattevoin & put up at 7 PM"
" The men finished carrying over at 2 PM came pafs Mattevoin & put up at 7 PM"
" Started at 5 AM came to the two Carrying places below Lake Saul put up in old Lake Saul at 8 PM"
" Started at 7 AM being a rainy Morning we came within two Miles of Tuppan's house, the Canoe detained us as it was very Leaky & badly taken care off."
" Started at 4 AM Wind a head we came very near the Devils creek before we put up at 9 PM Served the men Flour and Bacon that was Deposited in the Lake last fall 90 lbs of Each."
" Started at 4 AM wind a head entered the Devils Creek we put up at Frog Rock at 7 PM"
" Started at 4 AM the transaction of this is to long to make proper Remarks on it Therefore refers it to the Original"
" rain all night Started at 4 AM finished the Creek with much murmuring from the men"
" Started at 3 AM came about 40 Miles this day in St. Joseph's Lake put up at 8 PM."
" Started at 3 AM it blow very hard gale of Wind a head, the Canoe was obliged to put a Shore but the boats went on we Arrived at O:H at 4 PM where Mefs Goodwin Sutherland Best & Clouston was all well in health etc. etc.
The Governor Dept.
Gov. & Committee?
of the Hon. H.B.C.
Having performed what I undertook so far as laid in my power, please to observe that unforseen Miffortunes cannot be avoided, Necefsity forced me to push the men on more than I would, should this be the time? admit of it, I have Expened Eighty Gallons of Spirits on the men & Indians on my Journey in, and Still the men complains of me, it is very true that they work hard build a house two Stories a good provisions house a Fort of one Thousand Three hundred Stock heads & without it your Honors property would not be properly Secured. I refer to your best consideration Those Men who deserves Notice for their good behaviour
I remain with due Obedience respect & Regard
Your Honors Most Obed't Humb'e
Servant to Command