" Journal of a Journey from Red River to Martins Fall near Albany Factory in Hudsons Bay with Astronomical Geographical & Minerological Observations made on the said route: also a Journal of Occurences & Meteorological Observations made at the same Place (Brandon House)
Brandon House." [I'll be skipping a lot of the "Astronomical Geographical Minerological & Meteorological" observations.]
May 26 1818
" Tuesday At Noon Mefs Sutherland & Finlayson arrived here from Carlton House at the Elbow of this River; They have had a good Trade there this year in both furs & provisions. They left their House about the 2d May, but have been long on the passage owing to the shoalnefs of the water; They left their 5 Boats above Grand Rapid, expected to be here tomorrow. The Beaver Creek Batteaux will have great difficulty in reaching this, being so long before they started, that the water falls of rapidly daily; since the Ice drove by about 5 Weeks ago. They were obliged to send a considerable quantity of Fatt &c back in carts some distance below? their House - James Inkster & family arrived here, & his son Jack 12 years of Age had the Misfortune to get his Thigh broke a few days back by a Cart blowing over upon him carrying a light Canoe: Men at the House Variously employed. Mr Garrioch to accompany the Swan River Boats to the Factory YF."
" Wednesday The Swan river Boats arrived that was built at Carlton House. They are heavily loaded & considerably injured by the shoalnefs of the water. The NE Batteaux all left this a week ago for the Forks: they have left at Riviere Qu'appelle above 300 Bags pemmican they could not take down - They have 7 Batteaux - Men as usual."
" Thursday Above 130 Tents of Stone Indians tenting on N side this River amongst the Woods to be out of the way of the Mandans, who are constantly of late at bitter enmety with each other. The Stone Indian Chief of this party sent here for a little Tobacco, sent a fathom to him - he & party have traded their provisions at our House above: Men as usual."
" Friday Men variously employed about the House - Took an account of the Remains of Trading Goods, Stores &c left here. The Swan river Boats getting ready to embark for the Forks - water falling fast."
" Saturday Mr McDonald came here, he left all his Six Batteaux a considerable distance from this, they have had great difficulty owing to their leaving their House so late. - The Water is falling fast daily - In the evening 4 Swan river Boats went away for the forks."
" Sunday - Early this morning a Man came from the Boats that went away yesterday, says that James Morwick the Guide has got bruised much between two Boats - Sent Tho. Favil down in his place, he is engaged to be pilot and Steer a Boat down to Martins fall, to fetch up about 80 or 100 pieces of Goods the Governor wrote for to Albany Factory as there was little Goods came out in the Ship last fall. Pisk Kipling & 2 Men remains here a Day longer & then to embark in the small Boat built by James Inkster for himself. The Men left here for the Summer are James Inkster, Charles Fidler, James Anderson, Peter Henderson, Finlay Murray & Michel a Canadian Brulee now engaged for the Summer after the rate of 20 £ yearly but he has a large family of Children which is against entering into a long agreement with him; at 8 AM Mr Sutherland & one Man embarked in a Small Bark Canoe - & self & a Canadian in a Buffalo skin Canoe: for the Forks - The Beaver Creek Batteaux we learn have reached the Grand rapid, but much of the Pemmican got wet - Mr Sutherland pafsed Beaver Creek the? 17 Inst. at night put up in Company with the Boats that went away yesterday. James Morwick I hope will in a fortnight be able to steer again - Mr Duncan Campbell is also in Company with us, he lately came from Jack River or Norway House, to Swan River on the last Ice & is going with 1 Boat & 1 Canoe with Provisions to Rain Lake to meet our Montreal Canoes as they may be in want of provisions before they reach that place. Mr Finlayson & Campbell accompany the 4 Boats down to the Forks. - met Capt. Grant an Indian & received from him one Bear skin. part of Credit due us."
June 1 1818
" Monday. About 130 Tents of Stone Indians crofsing over the River from the N to the S side where they have been since the Melting of the Snow, out of the way of the Mandans &? They are continually in dread of early every spring - They are very troublesome to us for tobacco &c. before we started from? Brandon House - our People at the Rapid was obliged to divide amongst them near 500 lb Pimmican - at 3 1/2 AM we all embarked together but soon left the Boats, got to Root River about Sun Set where we put up - we searched for the Cannon & Carriage left there by the NW last spring but we could not find them."
" Tuesday - at 3 1/3 AM we got away & passed 9 French Batteaux mostly all on Shore repairing them - they left Brandon House 20th Inst. They have 100 Pieces in each of 90 lb. put up at 8 PM - fine weather."
" Wednesday. at 4 AM got away and owing to the shoalnefs of the water & numerous Sand banks it was Sun Set before we reached Grants Village, where we put up. got from them some Sturgeon - the Men are most of them preparing for war against the Sioux Indians - much ground planted & Their Houses & Tents all surrounded with Stockades."
" Thursday Pafs Portage de Prairie - many Bungees here but have nothing - went 2 Miles below and put up."
" Friday. The Indians told us that our People from Big point? House in the Manetobaw lake had all lately embarked for YF. We got underway at Sunrise, obliged every day to stop near 3 hours to dry the Parchment Skin Canoe to prevent its rotting. at 8 PM put up."
" Saturday Got underway at 3 1/2 AM & put up at 8 PM. many sand bars which detain us much."
" Sunday at 5 PM reach Birsay where Magnus Spence & several others have settled at this Spring - it is a very good situation? on N Side the river - They have got about 4 Bushels of wheat, half as much Barley & some potatoes in the Ground & are now hawling wood to make their dwelling Houses, they mean to build 5 Houses for as many families within a Picket enclosure to keep their Horses from being stolen as the Bungees are much addicted to Horse stealing in the Summer time - remained here an Hour & then embarked - Jack Spence Steered one of our Boats & guided the other over the Rapids below to the Forks, gave him one fathom Tobacco for his Trouble - went about 4 Miles below and put up."
" Monday at 7 PM arrive at the Forks, all well - Mr Graham been here 10 Days ago from the Sioux Country - he has made very poor returns in that Quarter, he left his House 3d April - he says Mr Robert Dickson has gone down with his Son by Prarie des Chien - Trade here 8 Packs off Mr Stitts? Indians done little here this Winter - Grant the NW Partner came down from Pambina where he wintered some days ago in 14 Skin Canoes. having made a deal of Provisions there, the Colonists have Sown a considerable quantity of grain of various kinds also Potaoes - and if the Season is favorable they will have as much as will serve all of them next Year. Mr Stitt? has 10 Kegs Potatoes & 3 of Barley sown, in one of the freemens Gardens but badly enclosed - a Small store built here the only work done. water low in the Red River but rather More than in the N branch."
" Tuesday. Laying here waiting the arrival of the Boats from Brandon House."
" Thursday. 5 Murons crossing the River opposite Fort Douglas Their small crofsing machine filled with water and one of them was unfortunately drowned, sunk & could not be found."
" Friday. Found the Muron not 40 yds from where he up set & buried him. Anxiously expecting the Arrival of the Boats."
" Saturday. A Canoe of ours came here from Montreal which place she left 25th April, manned principally with Iroquois? who are engaged (40 in all) to go to the Peace River to winter & hunt beaver for the Winter & to Voyage in Summer, They are all engaged for 2 years - Several others of our Canoes from Montreal is soon expected - for the Athapescow Country, Mr Colin Robertson coming up for the same place at the head of our party, he has been as well as Mr Spenser tryed at Montreal but both honorably acquitted for alleged crimes committed by them in Red River - the former was taken down in 1814. This Canoe brot up Letters & Montreal Newspapers - They inform us that Three Missionaries are coming up by the first Canoes to remain at the Red River Settlement. Three of the NW Light Canoes gone by York in Upper Canada and one of them daily expected here - Mr McLellan & Reinhard not yet tryed for the Murder of Mr Kivney in 1816. but soon expected to take their tryals. - They inform us that Lord Selkirk & party who left Fort Douglas 8th Sept. last had reached Montreal by way of Prarie du Chien. Washington ? & that Capt. Mathey & another had decended the Mississipi last fall in a Batteau to New Orleans where they embarked for New York. & at present in Montreal."
" Sunday. The Iroquoi Canoe was sent away to Norway House with the Letters, Papers &c for the Governor. 100 Canadians are engaged for us for the Northward, mostly Bow & Steersmen - at 6 pm? Mr Alan McDonell arrived from Montreal with the NW Letters - Mr Grant? went to Portage des Prarie with 14 Skin Canoes in Carts to meet their Batteaux there and to lighten them - Lagemonien? a freeman returned from Brandon House he? says? all the Stone Indians have pitched away."
" Monday Two Days since Six NW Canoes went with Provisions to Riviere? Winnipeg. - Sent away 6 Men & a Boat to lighten our others? coming down at the Rapids - but they returned short."
" Tuesday in the Evening our Boats arrived with Mefs Finlayson & Campbell from Brandon House - we hear from Indians our Beaver Creek Boats are not got to Grants Village yet; & that they left a considerable part of their Cargo at Brandon House - about 240 pieces Provisions of 90 lb Each - having only 60 in each Batteaux and a great deal of it very wet, owing to the leakinefs of the Batteaux & the frequent places they are obliged to drag them over."
" Wednesday Got some few necefsary Articles from the Colony for the 2 Batteaux which is going to Martins fall for about 80 or 100 pieces of Goods the Governor wrote to Albany for last fall as there was so little sent out in our Ship."
" Thursday. Most part of our Trade at Brandon House we put on board the Swan River Boats and got all things in readinefs to Embark Tomorrow - Mr Still? & 2 Men remains here."
" Friday In the Afternoon we all got underway Mefs Sutherland & Finlayson for Norway House - Mr Campbell with one Boat 2 Canoes with upwards of 60 Bags Pimmican to go to Rain Lake to meet our expected Canoes? from Montreal - Self 12 Men also go away to Martins fall in 2 Boats - Mr Campbell & us to keep Company till we reach Portage d'Isle in the Winnipeg river near which the tracks part - took with us 100 Drest Skins 54 Buffalo Robes & 53 Bags Pimmican - the 2 former & near half of the latter to be delivered to the Albany Settlement as they are very short of the whole. went down 5 Miles & put up at Mr Monkmans farm - Rain & thunder in the night."
" Saturday Embarked at 3 1/2 AM & one of the Swan River Boats got broke in a rapid & wet the provisions - The water is very shoal - stopped till 11 AM when Mr Sutherland came up to us & accompanied us a little way to give his final directions to both parties - when we seperated and put up at Dead river near Sun Set - Muskettoes very numerous."
" Sunday at 3 AM embark & put up near Stocking point on East side Lake Winnipic not far from the entrance of the Winnipic River near Sun Set - remarkably hot this Day & generally very little wind."
" Monday Very heavy Thunder & Rain in the Night, which made our Tents 6 Inches under water - at 3 1/2 AM got underway & arrived at the Canadian House near the entrance of the River at 6 AM - Saw Mr McDougald here & 2 Clerks. Campbell, Thompson & McMurray altho here kept out of the way as they expected we were come purposely to carry them away Prisoners - as no Boats of ours have been this way these several years past which confirmed them in that opinion. only remained 10 minutes & embarked, but obliged to stop for rain just above - remained 1 1/2 Hours when the weather cleared up and we embarked got over the first Quicksilver fall and put up there at ? - water low here, but all the small rivulets falling in are entirely full of water owing to the very heavy rain that fell last night - In the evening very heavy Thunder & a Deluge of rain - That lasted 2 Hours."
" Tuesday. Got to next Portage called the White Earth & left it at Noon put up on the upper side the Portage de Bonnet at 8 PM all over and the Boats about half way up the Rapid. - ? Duncan Campbell & Conolly passed us on their way to Fort William in one Canoe; the latter is to have a share this Year - and to winter at Cumberland House - "
" Wednesday. The Men got up with the Boats & we embarked at 9 AM and put up above the Bonnet Lake at 8 1/2 PM - In the chart that accompanies this Journal the whole of the Portages, their Length - all the Rivers & Creeks & that is the whole distance we go as well as the Lakes and any other remarkable thing - is inserted drawn on a scale of 5 Inches to 1° of Latitude."
[He starts June 22 and I will start editing heavily]
" Monday. Courses &c? up Winnipeg river" ... "Canadian House on West side a fine creek opposite -" ... " - two old houses formerly here on West side, near a century ago" ... "Old Point Foutre House formerly on East side, a steep grassy bare bank" ... " all the creeks now very full of water owing to the late very heavy rains; Three hours in getting all over the Portage. left it at 2 PM " ... " a Rocky Island, hand up the Boats on the right hand side 10 yds, a kind of Pudding Stone here green and black, very curious, the water eats out the colours & the rest of the Stone projecting" ... " In half an hour we got over the Last Portage, ran it down as we returned, but shipped a deal of Water by one of the Boats." ... "150 yards wide, Oaks on West side" ... " a round woody Island " ... " a creek on WS, wide, ? banks, small poplars and a few small oaks in places" ... "a Large Island, keep on the right of it. a bay on the East side & arrive at the Quicksilver or Great Eddy Water falls" ... " The whole fall about 19 feet, as we came back we lowered the Boats down empty except the upper brink - Crofs a small bay 60 yds and carried on the same side but we put up at lower one. Upper fall about 6 1/2 feet perpendicular."
" Tuesday Began to work at Sunrise. Track at upper one very wet owing to the late very heavy rain - pretty stout Oaks here; upper portage 110 yds." ... " a wide reach and a Grafs Island called Duck Island just above the Fall, arrive at White Mud portage on East side, about 190 yds long, a narrow track thro the Woods" ... "hand Boats over three brinks?" ... "3 to 400 yds wide & 2 woody Islands, a few pines, Good Oak on White Earth portage & many Plumb trees, a bay on the East side & a small river falls in there" ... "and arrive at the little Bonnet portage on East side 160 yds Smooth Rocks. The water on this Portage has worn several holes in the rocks like Kettles" ... "The Sun is now too high to take the Double Meridian Altitude as my sextant only extends to 123° - which is the reason of my not attempting to take Any Altitudes till we arrive at Osnaburgh House. arrived at the Big Bonnet Portage on left or East side" [1237 yds long] ... "18 Minutes walk over the Portage now very wet & dirty:" ... "arrive at the Portage" ... " got all over" ... " near 30 feet fall in all. Heavy shour of Rain at 1 PM. Mr Campbell & Conolly passed us here; They inform us there are 9 Boats & 11 Canoes from the Saskatchewan belonging to us, the Canoes are for the Northwards & part of the Boats for the low? Country. - water shoal in the Saskatchewan - he tells us that Mr Decoygne? has got no trade in the Athapescow this year. Mr McFarlane to Summer at Isle a la Crofse are building on the same spot there I did in 1809."
" Wednesday. Large Oaks upper end Bonnet portage - and a fine ? open place for a small farm. a fine bay on the left above the Fall -" ... "The Canoe portage on West side 60 yd - Fall 6 feet high called Lower war fall - attempted to Observe the ? ?, but too high for the Sextant, to observe for latitude as we return when the Sun will be lower. The Pinnawa falls in on the left just above the upper war fall & lower end Lac du Bonnet - Left the Portage at 1 1/2 PM" ... " & enter Lac du Bonnet, went thro' it" ... " two Islands near the bottom" ... "pafs on the WS the Islands" ... " a ripple" ... " then a narrow & ripple" ... " 1 mile wide or more & 3 small Islands below, one of them Called Loutits small - 3 poplar Trees on it near the head of the reach" ... " The last reach much more Steep muddy banks on East or left hand side we go at the upper end of the reach & a strong shoot current. River here about 100 yards wide; several small creeks on East side SWbS1/2 Strong current & began to Track on West side, fine shore." ... " fine steep woody banks, 200 yards wide put up on West side at 8 PM. Water rising, Light Airs Northerly & very hot weather."
June 25 [unedited for example]
" Thursday Got underway at 3:50 AM. John Easter one of the Three Murons we have with us has a very sore foot and cannot track. Steep banks and woody SSE1 Strong rapidy Current & stony SEbS1 1/4 - SbE1 - ESE1 1/4 White River falls in here on the Right - now very full of water a perpendicular fall at its mouth, and full of Rapids above about 20 yards wide, about 1/5 the size of Winnipic River at Present, the late very heavy rains have ? it considerably above its usual height. hawl up a rapid 20 yds on right 1 1/2 foot fall. ESE 1/4 & carried on West side 20 yds 4 1/2 foot fall; just above it on same side carry 60 yds 7 1/2 feet fall & then go? round a small bay about 100 yards & carry at the 4th Portage on WS 15 yards rocky, but hawled up the Boats with a line, about 2 feet fall - only 3/4 mile these 4 last portages by the river - NE 2/3 moderate current, a stout creek on W Side just above the 4th Portage & arrive at the Barrier Portage 40 yds on West side fall 8 feet, over two rocks, Launched the Boats in two places at this portage 1 1/4 hour in getting all over at EbN 1/4? & arrive at Grand Gally a fine smooth rock portage on W side 120 Yards fall 8 1/4 feet the shoot included just above it which last we hawled up by a Line; steep rocks. - Water here 6 feet 4 Inches lower than the highest high water mark formerly - EbN 1/4 & carry on W Side 120 yards 9 1/2 feet fall. good portage 1 1/10 ? on this portage, EbN 1/4 & carried 160 yards on W side good? fall 8 1/2 feet stopped here at 5 PM, then carried all over and put up. Strong wind at South & Cloudy."
" Friday at 4 1/3 AM got underway; Thunder & Rain last night" ... " a creek on the West side" ... " lower banks" ... " very strong current, only about 80 yards wide and strong ripples all up the last reach - Small oaks on every rocky point, none in the bays, NE1 and come to the head of the Pinawa which the NW Canoes go down in years of very high water, now not an Indian light Canoe could go down it without frequently carrying - NE1/4 up Jack Easters creek a small part of the river on the left a ripple at the head of it & very shoal, ENE1 & arrive at Grand Rapid 3 feet fall carry on WS 20 yds rocks. many Islands in the river on the right & some of them large. arrived at Grand Rapid at 8 AM & left it 9 1/3" ... " half a mile wide & two Islands in the reach. stopped here from 11 to 3 1/2 making 2 Oars & 1 Sweep to Steer with." ... " and arrive at a Barrier called by our Men the Hammer fall Carry on the N Side 110 yards over smooth rocks" ... " track the Boats up the lower part to the unloading place 40 yards; here Mefs Thompson & McMillan proprietors of the NW Company passed us on their way to Fort William in one Canoe. Thompson has his family with him; NbE 1 1/2 about 1 Mile wide and 2 Islands; low ground and a kind of hill or rising ground on the right, a narrow at end of last reach 70 yds wide & very strong current 200 yds NbE1 The Canadian Masters put up here for the Night, NbE 1/12, 150 yds wide and we put up at 7 3/4 PM on left side. Mr Campbell with 1 Boat & Canoe still ahead which they got whilst we were detained making the Oars & Sweep; he left for me a few lines on the last portage."
" Saturday - at 3.40? AM got underway; at 3 1/4 The NW people passed us." ... " steep rocks in many places" ... " & arrive at the Slave Fall at 4.55 found our people waiting for us where they slept last night - in Years of very high water carry out of the bay below on W side - 15 feet fall, takes its name from 2 Sioux or Slave Indians taken prisoners by the Sateux? about 40 years ago, who threw themselves before this fall & drowned themselves rather than be kept Prisoners by the Souteaux, left the portage" ... " a bay on the left and a fishing Creek, then narrower" ... " two Islands" ... "high rocky banks, small firs &c" ... " arrive at a Portage 100 yds on N.S. fall 8 1/2 feet, very rocky" ... " a ripple & hand up on left 10 yds by a line" ... " & carry on left 90 yds a steep fall & arrive at 12 1/3. 18feet high - came up to 8 Canoes of the NW from Isle a la Crofse Big Paul the Guide. they have 16 Packs each Canoe, apparently many drest Moose Skins amongst the Packs, only one Pitch at this fall." ... "& carry on same side This a point of Poplars 300 yds level, wet at times in the middle. fall 7 feet high got here at 2 PM & left at 5 PM. NbE 1/2 a bay on the left above the Portage, NNW 3/4 These 3 last Portages called McKays falls -" ... " Islands for 2 Miles" ... " enter a narrow" ... "& arrive at a Portage 120 yds rocky; fall 12 1/4 feet; very? rough rocks on Portage bad carrying on Right hand. Tom Favel badly."
" Sunday. Left the Portage at 5.25 AM. Tom Favel our Guide still badly. carried over & launched the Boats in a Kind of Creek? before we started - sailed a little last night," ... " several Islands" ... "a ripple" ... " a ripple" ... "3/4 wide several Pine Islands, a strong ripple" ... " several Islands 3/4 mile wide" ... "strong ripples in places" ... " and enter a wider place S4 a deep bay on the left & one Island in the Middle, the upper end of last reach two Houses built last fall on the right by McDougald for us & Laurior for the NWC. we got very little Trade, the NW the greatest part. McDougald had a Man frozen to Death a Canadian within sight of the House & was found next day & buried there" ... " the river here about 1 Mile wide, high land in the bay on the right rocky & small Pines & firs; E3 high rocks on both sides and small firs, a few Islands in this reach" ... " high steep smooth rocks bare, small firs on the right; 1/4 mile wide, half way thro this last reach a small bad river comes from the Woody Lake;" ... " arrive at Portage D'Isle; fall 3 feet, the Portage is on the S side 60 yds but we hawled up the Boats on opposite side. 1 1/4 hour in getting over it, with the 3 Boats with a line. ESE 1 bare high rocks and small firs, on both sides, here the Tracks part, and we seperated from Mr Campbell & party. one Boat & Canoe accompanies him to Rain Lake with Pimmican. he expects to be there in 6 or 7 Days more, parted with him at 5 PM." ... "a burnt wood Island" ... "two small bays on the left and a rocky ? in the middle of the Channel," ... "all Islands on our right since we parted with Mr Campbell, here we have a view of 4 Miles along the French Track about 1 1/2 mile wide - E 1 a deep bay on the left" ... "two bays on the right 2 miles each deep" ... "this last reach on the West side with a heavy fall in it, put up at 7 1/2 PM on W side. Calm at night, in the day variable and hot. Mr Campbell promised to leave me a letter under a certain Stone at Portage D'Isle on his return with the News from Montreal."
" Monday At 3 1/4 AM we got underway, Strong wind a head" ... " amongst Islands, a bay on the right 2 Miles deep NbW 1/2 & arrive at Deer fall, carry on the right 90 yards, rocky 8 1/4 foot fall" ... " narrow and a strong pulling place" ... " high steep bare rocks & very small short firs on them in places" ... "then enter McNabs Lake called by our Albany Men, as they used formerly to give names to any place who would give them the most Grog, & it was the common custom when ever they pafsed it afterwards if the person was in Company to give all hands each a Dram. went thro' McNabs Lake" ... " a ripple hawl up 20 yards" ... "from here on South side 3 Portages & 2 small Lakes to Portage d'Isle House, perhaps not 5 Miles off by our Guides account. a kind of narrow & a burnt pine Island opposite the entrance. keep the NW side in McNabs Lake being the shortest, shoal between the Gravel Island & the Main narrow. McNabs Lake continued" ..."an Old Canadian House on the left & a road to Red Lake in Indian Canoes, but small & many rapids & Portages" ... "end of McNabs Lake" ... "up a small? part of the river, the main branch on the right" ... "the Portage of 410 yards; pretty good pine & Fir this afternoon - a steep hill 15 yds at upper end Portage. Fall 10 feet? [it looks like his question mark] got here at 7 1/2 PM & put up. and laid some of the rollers right to hawl the Boats over tomorrow. the small Creek continues farther on, scarce room for the Boats to turn the little distance we have come up it - Strong Wind at NE overcast, night calm; Plenty of Plumb Trees on this Portage - pretty level and Good."
" Tuesday. at 4 1/2 AM began to carry & left the Portage at 8 3/4 AM & went SbE 1/4 & carry on the right 80 yards called Kettle fall. 15 feet almost perpendicular fall. very steep to take the Boats up - owing to the shoalnefs of the water we carried over the small rocky Island - here we saw the first Silver Fir growing here. No Sturgeon higher than this Fall being so very steep & high they cannot pafs it" ... " got to the 3d one" ... " fall 6 3/4 feet in 3 brinks, carry on the left 150 yds thro the Woods, here? take the Boats empty up by water" ... "& go thro a kind of narrow Lake" ... " a narrow & strong current" ... "a ripple & put up at 6 1/4 PM & angle many Jack & Perch, hawled up by a line at the ripple below; Gniese rocks all along in places above the 3 last Portages below generally Granite."
July 1 1818
" Wednesday. At 3 3/4 AM Embarked & went thro Wegg Lake" ... "one mile below this a communication for Small Canoes to the Woody Lake there being 5 intervening Portages;" ... " These last 7 Courses a kind of lake variable in breadth to 1 1/2 Mile, & enter the Old Soldiers Narrow about 60 yards wide ? & steep rocks on each side went thro it" ... "a bay on the right 1 1/2 mile deep, NE 1/2 & enter a kind of Lake near one mile wide" ... "Scarts point on the left N75E3 Secondary Rocks in this lake & Granit & mostly small firs, thro a narrow" ... " & enter a wider part" ... "& keep on the left a wide opening on the right towards Eagle Lake" ... "in a narrow steep rocks & some current 20 yds wide - NbW 3/4 & enter a Small Lake called Wa pin a pan 2 Miles wide. Thro it" ... " end of the Lake two old Houses here on the left & enter short kind of river, strong current, very fine Silver Firs on right hand side, N 1/2 & enter a Lake called Ska bee che wan -" ... " here we found Edward Mowat & two of the Albany Men, they wintered here last winter & made about 14 Packs of Furs - reached the House at 5 1/2 PM. saild the latter part of the day, rain in the afternoon; They are now catching a good many Tickameg - McPherson from Rain Lake passed here from Rain Lake where he wintered for us, with 2 Boats & one Canoe, he has made very little Trade & expended all his Goods - he arrived here 4th June & left it the day after. he is to go down it is said to Montreal as a Witnefs: left here 4 Bags Pimmican to serve us on our return to Red River - at Scarts point, Clay banks, gravel & land on the Shore."
" Thursday Left the House at 5 1/2 AM; got before we started some? good new caught Tickameg, went in the Sha bee che wan Lake as before" ... " & enter a narrow" ... "& opens again 2 mile wide -" ... "& enter a river ENE 1/4 & carried 90 yd on left, good smooth Rocks, Fall 6 3/4 feet" ... " Strong wind NE drizzling rain. Plenty of Thorn Trees at the Portage - a small kind of wood called Rain wood begins here - and the Oaks do not grow farther Eastwards in this Track. ENE 1/4 & enter a Lake 3 mile wide in places, thro it" ... " & enter a narrow steep rock on W side" ... "Cedar grows here" ... "100 yards wide" ... " a ripple" ... "and enter a Lake crofs it NWbW 3, extends on the right 4 miles & enter a river N 1/8 & carry on left 40 yards good, 8 1/2 feet fall & steep, great eddy below and bad unloading place."
" Friday - At 3 2/3 AM got underway - Indians came to us last night but they have nothing." ... " & carried 70 yards on the left; kettles here in the rocks 2 feet deep & 1 diameter. fall 5 feet. Then went WbN 1/4 & carried on an Island 20 yds fall 7 1/2 feet. The water has risen in the Ska bee che wan Lake 18 Inches perpendicular this Spring - or within this Month past, several Kettles worn in the Solid rocks 8 feet above the present level of the Water, left the portage at 6.55. Sky clearing. Cedar on the upper portage, rocky all along? every day" ... " a small creek on the left N 1/3 a ripple and stony Island" ... " a bay 2 miles deep on the right" ... " a shoot of current" ... " a river falls in on the left" ... " a bay on the right 2 miles deep; thro a narrow" ... " a small Lake 1 1/2 wide" ... " narrower" ... " Sutherlands point on the left & a sand bar & Moose horn Island. E 3/4 high rocks" ... " a ripple & hawl the Boats up with a line NNE 1/4 a small Lake 1 mile wide thro it" ... " & enter a river" ... " & carry on left 60 yards. Fall 12 feet & steep arrive at it at 4 1/4 PM. pretty good woods. Pine & Poplar and not quite so high rocks as usual." ... " went up the river" ... " 100 yds wide a small Island" ... " a Portage on the left about 1 1/4 mile long over a hill, used when the water is high to avoid the falls a little above us; it leads into a small bay in a Lake above - narrow between rocks & Current" ... " 300 yds wide & a rocky Island" ... " steep rocks on both sides & put up at 7.8 PM. Our Guide thought it too late to reach the unloading place at the Portage."
" Saturday. at 4.5 AM got underway & went NNE 1/4 a ripple & small creek East side & 3 small rock Islands" ... " & arrive at the Carrying place on right hand side, 660 yards pretty good, very steep at both ends. take the Boats up on opposite side & launch them at 4 places about 20 yards each - Fall all 32 feet in 4 places, got to the portage at 4.35; Thro small poplars carry over a small rocky hill 1/3 of the way over - got all over the Portage & the Boats up at 11 AM -" ... "a small river falls in on the right from Cedar or Kee shik Lake, wide at the Mouth like a small lake; NWbN 1/8 & carry on the left 60 yards very rough rocks. river very narrow here between high Rocks & very strong shoot of current, ran down it as we returned - The Rocks a mixture of Granat Sand stone in crooked layers. The shoot about 3 feet high, some time past at this shoot the water has been 13 feet higher," ... "a bay on the left & upper end of the long Portage to avoid those we have lately passed, & enter a Small Lake 1 1/2 mile wide" ... "& now again enter a Grassy ? near 200 yds wide" .... "a small creek & Lake on left" ... " several grassy & sandy bays in the Small Lake and many Ducks, Geese &c. lower end hard steep clay banks in places, N 1/8 and pafs Paw quash river on the left about 20 yards wide comes from the Red Lake." ... " a fine grassy bank on opposite side at mouth of the Paw quash river, passed it at 3 PM - fine high pines & poplar on both sides, very little current; the Paw quash river opens West, no rocks about the Mouth of that river but low flat & Grassy, good wood & pretty banks on the left" ... "a small creek on the right & a larger one on the left opposite" ... " rocks on both sides" ... " a small creek on the right" ... "small poplars except about Paw quash river; There Stout fir and Pine SE 1/4 two small creeks just opposite each other" ... "two more small creeks opposite each other" ... " a fine flat grassy place on the left" ... "a nice point on the left or West side" ... " a small Creek on each side opposite each other" ... " two small Creeks one on each side. Saild all the way from the upper end of the Lake beyond Pawquash river. Strong wind West flying Clouds, Small Creeks always one on each side opposite each other. I never observed the like before except at Sepaywisk in Nelson River track, altho I have been a great way thro' those Northern parts of this Country, NEbN 1/4 formerly a willow Island on the right; a swamp on the left EbN 3/4 now wider & 2 small Creeks one on each side opposite each other as usual. a Grafs Island and a fine Tickameg fishing place at the small bay. NbE 1/8 & carried thro woods on the right 230 yards good, lower end steep, here we put up at 6 1/2 PM but carried nothing over. Angled several Jack here."
" Sunday - Got all over the Portage & left it at 7:17 AM - fall 11 3/4 feet, lower end perpendicular NNW 1/8 & carried on the right 70 yards thro woods good & level, fall 8 1/4 feet. rocks here like spiders webs on the Surface. a very hard substance left the Portage at 9:55." ... " small creek on the left, E 1/4 60 to 80 yards wide easy current in General all the way from Lake Winnipic -" ... " wider & an Island in the Middle, sandy shores in places as we have seen little land since Lake Winnipic, enter Lac Sal at 11 AM and go thro the following courses & Distances, it is full of Islands and narrows - from 10 Miles to 60 yards wide" ... " along a kind of narrow" ... " & enter a narrow, an old French House built in 1807 - SSE 1/4 along a narrow SSE 1/2 Site of an old French House built about 1764 on the left hand side. The narrow about 200 yards wide, SEbS 1/4 an old Albany House on the right & enter a wide opening 15 Miles wide acrofs it" ... " & put up at the entrance of another narrow at 7 1/4 PM - Calm hot weather forepart of the Day, afterwards light Airs at SSW - Some time back water in this Lake 5 feet perpendicular higher than now - some Cedar along this Lake in particular spots."
" Monday - at 3:35 AM got underway & went in Lake Sal as yesterday. in the Narrow" ... " an opening on the left" ... " a shoal point" ... " hanging Island, where the Albany Men hung an Indian near 20 years ago for severely wounding Magnus Birsay. enter a wide opening on the right goes towards Egg Lake, keep pretty near the NW side of the Lake. pines point to point," ... " acrofs an opening on our left" ... " & pafs the place where Mr Still? was building it with 10 Men & 2 Boats from ["E1/2 N1/2" in the margin] Albany near 10 years ago, when Mr Haldane? & Men would not suffer our people to build, but drove them all out of the Lake after our Men had cut down a quantity of wood for building - E 1/2 N 1/2 & came to the Canadian House a Mr Nicholas Master & 3 Men. They are catching plenty of Tickameg. - very fine woods here mostly of Silver fir. The NW built here in 1806. They have made here about 16 packs of furs this winter." ... " & enter a narrow NbE 2 & becomes wide again" ... " & pafs between R? "... " an Island where the NWC make their fall fishing of Tickameg & hawl them to their House" ... " & pafs the Beggars Stone a very large roundish single stone above 10 feet high laying on the rock Island. along narrows" ... " about 1/4 mile wide the narrow here" ... " an opening on the right" ... " a narrow abt 100 yds wide" ... " & put up at 6:50 PM. Small poplars & firs all along on left since we passed the Canadian House; nearly opposite the Canadian House a Communitcation? to Fort William which road the NW passes into this part of the Country. The NW house built on a low? Sandy flat point and Good Potatoes grow there notwithstanding. Wind S to SW fresh breezes & clear sailed most part of the day. dark coloured rocks all the way in this Lake, where we put up a fine low sandy point."
" Tuesday Got underway at 3:55 AM and continue still thro Lake Sal" ... " & Thro a narrow" ... " and a deep bay on the left. NbE 4 & enter a river; at 9 2/4 AM. saw 3 Indians near it and got from them a little fresh Meat - The river about 200 yds wide & very little current. Muskettos very plentiful last night. very few for 10 days before, heavy Thunder and Rain just after starting this Morning, went up the river Blackwater, low grassy sides with Rocks in some places, no perceptable current" ... " a creek on the left" ... " & came to a strong rapid, hawled up the Boats on right hand side 80 yards river here about 15 yds wide. carry the most part of our Cargo. fall about 3 feet, left the fall at 11.5 and hoisted sail" ... " about 60 yds wide all along, EbS 1/4 small creek on the right" ... " wider" ... " a small bay on the right 1/3 mile deep" ... " another similar bay on the right & a creek" ... " Vincents rock on the left near NbE 1/2 two small bays opposite each other the right called Norns bay" ... " very small scrubby Junipers in many places" ... " frog rock on the left a good sleeping place, ESE 1/2 & enter Peter Borstons Lake from 1/2 to 2 miles wide, go thro it SebE 2 & enter a small creek, in this Lake the wind was so strong that it broke our Boat Mast & tore out the Shaft? & one Plank out of the side of the Boat, which detained us from 2 PM to 4 1/6 & proceeded up the narrow creek. high Pines & Junipers in this Creek, narrow. just room to work the Oars and no more, very easy current, went up the Creek" ... " very much Eachwaymamis river on the way to York Factory" ... " water fallen near one foot these last 10 Days, a small creek on the right, NW 1/3 a small creek on the right, NbW 1/4 a small creek on the left and formerly a lopt pine, now only 5 feet of the Stump remaining, very close tall Junipers & Pine all along this Creek" ... " (a small creek on the right at the bottom of the last reach) a small creek on the right" ... " a stout creek on the right" ... " small creek on the left, NbE 1 small creek on the right & a steep? bare rock on the left, NNE 1/4 and arrive at Short fall 3 feet high, hand up by a line on the right a Portage on same side 20 yds. go about 100 yds farther & carry every thing over an Island 20 yards, a goodfall 4 3/4 feet high - very curious rocks here, worn into a number of kind of Kettles. put up on the Portage at 7 1/2 PM."
" Wednesday. Got away at 3:46 AM & went up the Creek as before" ... " much drift wood in the river here." ... " a stout creek on the left" ... " very large creek on the right, NE 1/8 rocks on the right & dry land just there," ... " dry high bank on the right & firs, near NbW 1/2 a nice creek on the right" ... " a rock on the right" ... " bank fallen down a little on the right, N 1/8; steepish banks here on both sides but most on the left" ... " an Indian Portage on the left to clear the two Cat falls a little above us and some ripples,: ... " & arrive at Cat fall at 6:15 hawl up on the left 20 yds. Fall 3 feet, NNW 1/6 upper Cat fall 9 1/2 feet. Launch the Boats 30 yards & carry every thing the same distance. South end of the Portage steep got to it at 7:10 & left it at 8:33" ... " a creek on the right & a small Lake." ... " a creek on the left & Indian Portage carries into it a little way up it from below the Cat falls." ... " a small creek on the right" ... " steep bank on the right and Rocks in the River" ... " water 21 Inches lower now than when it is the highest, near N 1/2 a good creek on the left, NNW 1/8 a small swampy Lake on the right & a small creek runs thro' it" ... " & carry 35 yards on the left hand called Pancake rock, fall 5 1/2 feet. between rocks 7 feet wide, arrive at the Portage at 9:32 & leave it at 10:35" ... " a strong shoot? 4 1/2 feet fall, hawl up the Boats with all in on the right, steep rocks on the left, Portage on the right 80 yards through the Woods, may be ran down, called Wind fall left at 11:27 W 1/2 wind fall? wood? acrofs the river, very steep high rocks on the Left. Good pines in several places" ... " an Island go on the right, steep rocks, NNW 1/4 and arrive at Lively fall at and leave it 11:55 hawl up by a line a portage on the left 80 yards. Fall 3 1/4 feet. leave the Lively fall at 12:35" ... " a small creek on the right" ... " head of Large Island. E 1/8. Indians lay here the same Summer Magnus Birsay was wounded & the Indian hung with the Intention of Killing our people as they returned from Martins fall - but their provisions falling short they were obliged to disperse before our Men got back here - They had cut two tracks Thro the narrow point of Land the better to shoot our people as they came back. NNW 1/16 & enter All hands Lake about 400 to 500 yards Diameter NW 1/4 acrofs it & enter a very narrow creek. the Willows meeting acrofs it, can make no use of the Oars here, set all with the poles & even then we can make but very slow progrefs. enter it at 1:05 PM." ... " about NW Course 1 1/4 mile by the river & abt 3/4 mile straight & carry 240 yards on the left, very little water here tho a good deal at the last rapid. the greater falls in on the left at the Big? Island above good level portage full of small stones & small firs. arrive at it 2:05?, a small pond at N end where we load the Boats this fall perhaps about 4 feet, but very narrow & full of Large stones. WSW 1/8 from the Portage, left at 5:08 PM, steep high rocks on the left about 1/2 mile above the last portage, at 5:45 got to Pigeon Portage, on the right 40 yards long, narrow, go up it & carry nothing 1/12 mile by the river from the last portage to this but so narrow we can make no use of the Oars. Course NNW leave it at 5:55 and arrive at Bougrants Rock portage 20 yards good Boats taken up by water, Course from Pigeon Portage to this about NbE - left it at 6:35, arrive at Burnt wood Portage at 7:07 & carry every Thing 90 yards on the right, level, high hill close on the right, leave the Portage at 7:51, above this creek clear of overhanging willows, all below this to All hands Lake scarsely room for the Boats to pafs. here it is that Mr Haldane sent a Clerk & 2 Men about 10 years ago, to fall the largest Trees growing on either side to fall acrofs this narrow creek. There were above 700 Cut down for the avowed purpose of blocking up the road that we could not pafs; but it was luckily a year of high water & a number of Boats together that our people made way thro' it in a few Days; Creek wide above but still not room to work the oars & the woods at least 10 yards from the water edge. went NE 2 miles and arrive at the Height of Land Portage at 8:24 where we put up - the Creek still keeps further on but very narrow, not fit for an Indian Canoe - low flat wet sides; and little current, blackish water. The Creek perhaps continues 3 or 4 miles farther."
" Thursday. Began to carry over the Height of Land Portage at 4:30 AM and got all over at 9 & left it at 9:35. Portage 830 yards over pretty level & swampy in the middle about 150 Yards deep in wet seasons. Course over the Portage ? 1/2 mile into a narrow creek still use poles. N 100 yards & the creek widens & we use oars," ... " 1/4 mile wide & horse shoe grafs but slender," ... " an opening on the left makes an Island," ... " 100 yards wide & an Island here in years of high water, big stones here & narrow" ... " steep rocks here on the left and firs, NW 1/8, these narrows called Jack Richards creek, NbE 1/2 and enter Osnaburgh House Lake or Misk quog gay mew, enter it at 11 AM & go thro the Lake the following Courses NNE 1/8 & widens to 2 Miles NNE 3 Bests rocks," ... " Buish? shistus? rocks in the Lake" ... " several small Islands here which has a great effect on the Compas, keeping it at least 6 points from its position it ought to have" ... " & put up at 7:07 PM - for these last 8 Miles a large opening to the NWestward & the river fall in there that communicates with the Cat Lake: hot weather & little wind."
" Friday. at 3 1/4 AM we got underway & went in Osnaburgh Lake ENE 1/2 E4 & enter a narrower part EbN 3/4 Cedar point on the left" ... " East side of the Portage in the Lake over a large point of Land" ... " a deep bay on the left ENE 6 acrofs it - Called the Great Traverse" ... " amongst Ids?" ... " then a kind of narrows" ... " an old Fishing House the Osnaburgh Men fish at in the Fall" ... " narrow & current," ... " a small river on the right called Pedlars Path where the NWC pafs to this country thro from Fort William N 2, NNE 2, N 2 1/2 & arrive at Osnaburgh House at 5 PM & found 3 Clerks here & 2 Men?. some of the NW Canoes had only passed here for Fort William a few Days back - very sandy at the House, low & flat, extensive gardens here, but only in wet Summers produce any thing: small Pines thro this Lake and some Cedar. the Lake extends 5 or 6 miles further Northwards - The House is on the West shore & was built about the year 1790. - fish scarse here in winter, now they are catching planty of Tickameg. - To leave part of our Cargo here & take the remainder to Martins fall. they tell us we shall be 6 Days before we reach that place. Saild part of the Day."
[ Skipping a page and a half of "Astronomical Observations taken at Osnaburgh House 1818". I imagine that's what he did July 11]
" Sunday at 6 1/2 AM we left Osnaburgh House for Martins fall. went acrofs the Lake EbS 1 1/2 and entered a narrow or river went down it" ... " a strong pulling up place here" ... " acrofs a small Lake" ... " and carry 275 yards on the left, fall 6 3/4 feet; tolerable good portage 2 or 3 bridges on it over narrow swamps. Dark Greenish Shistus rocks, the Strata lies from NW to SE with veins of hard cherts, black in their layers, and some patches of veins? of white Flint or like it. left the Portage at 9:35 & went in a Lake near 3 miles wide" ... " a river on the Right to Pes cu cog gan," ... " a large Branch goes off on the right. keep the left side" ... " a narrow, white rocks and very shoal, lower the ripples by the Line 20 yards" ... " Johnstons Island, NNE 1 strong current all along. N 1/2 a ripple" ... " a shoal ripple & enter Deer Tent Lake between two & 3 miles wide" ... " apart of the Waters go out on the right - Two high Hills on the Same side, also one hill on the left all near the Lake covered with woods: go down the left branch of the river. Water very clear and many Trout in it about 1 1/2 to 2 lb weight," ... " Rosies? point on the left, NNE 1 1/2 only 50 yards wide" ... " 300 yards wide, NbE 1/2 and arrive at the Smooth stony Portage on the left at 3:20 PM, sailed with a strong wind most part of the Day. carry all over & put up Portage 660 yards, at 2/3 of the way swampy in places, got all over at 6:25. An Indian came to us here got from him 2 sturgeon but very bad ones. Evening Calm & Clear and a frosty air - All this day scrub pines & Birch. very little Poplar. The 3 hills near Deer Tent Lake perhaps 400 feet high. formerly a noted place for the Grey Deer. - Rocks & swamps almost all along - seems to be similar to about Oxford House in the Track from Winnipic to the Bay."
" Monday. at 4:20 AM got away from the Carrying place. lower end carries into a bay; the river on the right. also a small river falls in here near the Loading place on the left; Morning Calm & Clear -" ... " a back creek on the right, many rapaids? we have pafsed" ... " a back creek on the left, sometimes go down when the water is high to avoid the Bad Cok e a me falls" ... " and Carried on the left 50 yards good, Called the lick in the hole, two brinks at this Portage about 4 feet high, a rapid just below 20 yards long & strong, left the Portage at 6:38 arrive at it 5 1/4 AM ENE 1/4 a ripple lower down on the right but keep the left side close, NE 1/4 a bay, carry on the right 230 yds, good, rocky, lower the Boats in a Creek fall 15 1/2 feet called the High Cok e a mis, fall very steep, arrive at it 7 1/2 & left it at 9 2/3, ENE 1/4 a bad rapid, ran down it, the Portage on the right 50 yards, very strong, shipped some water. EbN 1/4 and arrive at the 3d Cok e a mis fall, called the Swift one on NS 50 yards, fall 7 1/4 feet. very steep. left it at 10:35, E 1/8 a bad rapid called lower Cok e a mis. carry on NSide 200 yards good but we ran it down, a branch falls in here on the right which falls out of Deer Tent Lake, N 1/2 rapidy," ... " rapidy 1/3 mile wide" ... " easy current & 120 yards wide to 600 & deep easy current, ESE 1/2 low, swampy, small pines &c all along this day" ...[adds Latitude] " taken on the right hand side near the entrance into the upper Elbow Lake. river here 600 yards wide, low flat sandy shores, but some poor pine a little lower on left. ENE 3/4 acrofs one Corner of upper Elbow Lake & enter the river again - Lake 8 miles long on the right NbW 1, 600 yards wide all a sandy bottom, a stout Creek falls in here on the right. N 1/2 fine shores & rather higher on the left NWbN 1/2 all burnt wood on both sides about 15 years ago. Sugar bag Creek falls in here on the left, from the Lick in the hole portage; high ground on the left & North of it firs 200 yards wide since the Elbow Lake. Sugar bag creek 60 yds wider? at the lower end, which the Indians generally go in with their Canoes, NbE 1/2 a small creek on the left and an old Log Tent, where our people were froze in in the fall some years ago" ... " high sandy banks on the right and lower on the left; a stout creek on the left" ... " a hill on the right has a very fine appearance some distance above; ? Creek on the right, hills on both sides comes nearer the river; a creek on the left got here 3 PM - High Granit rocks on both sides & low grafs at the river" ... " Pines & stony shore these last 2 reaches and river about 50 yards wide & stronger current (very little above almost like a Lake) called the Black ripple NNE 3/4 Creek on the left" ... " these two last reaches lower banks & sandy 150 yards wide very easy current, steep rocks on the left & a fine gravelly shore on the right, narrower & a strong ripple 60 yds long." ... " 300 yards wide easy current. Charleys ripple we? passed last, near NEbN 4 above 600 yds wide in some places easy current, a strong short? current near the middle of this last reach, fine gravelly shore on the left, now we enter among rapids 80 yards wide NWbN 4 strong rapid, a stout creek on the left where we put up at 6 1/2 PM to make 2 Oars - several very fine ? of very clear cold water? runs out of the Bank here. Clear Weather, Strong breezes at NW afternoon lefs wind."
" Tuesday. at 4:10 AM got underway" ... " not more than 18 yards wide & deep & strong current" ... " little poplar point, NE 1/4 a ripple in every reach, SSE 1/4 an Indian portage on the left to avoid the two Shakespear Carrying places a little below us" ... " stopped here above half an hour a thick fog cannot see to go down the rapids. Latitude" ... " taken August 3d on our return;" ... " rapids" ... " a bay on the right go round it, river here full of large rocks above water, all a strong rapid. fall about 4 feet" ... " upper Shakespear portage on the left 100 yards good, wet at lower end, lower down, carry nothing, arrive at it 5:50 leave it 7:05 NE 1/3 rapidy current. The 2d Shakespear Portage on the left 310 yards. good, hand down the Boats, very shoal, lower end of the Portage Swampy, a steep sand bank at the upper end. Fall 8 feet in many brinks NbE 1/2 all shoal, steep bare sand bank on the left, NNE 1/4 lower end of the Indian Portage, a small creek on the left" ... " wider and shoal, SSE 1/4 a nice stout creek on the right" ... " banks near the water getting higher than above, a ripple in every reach, EbN 3/4 a steep bare sand bank on the left, NEbN 1/3 ariver Dyewood falls in here on the right near 80 yards wide, shoal and comes from the SEbS" ... " a rapid" ... " 1/4 mile wide and an Island" ... " fine, stony, Sandy, Grassy level shores. last reach wider than above," ... " two or 3 small creeks on each side" ... " narrow & fishing Point" ... " a large Island at the end of this last reach, keep on the left side" ... " rapidy" ... " strong current rapidy & narrower - ENE 2 among Islands 400 yards wide, a hill a head the beginning? of the Snake falls, from so many Snakes found about them & no where else in this track, ripply current & shoal, ? water on left side the Islands, a creek on the same side & end of the Islands & narrower, S 1/2 Badger hill on right perhaps 600 feet above the river & near it, round hill, bears from this South" ... " strong current" ... " a hill right a head appears to run NW & SE - river wide shoal & ripply S 1/8 a bay on the right 1 mile deep & 9 Islands in it, keep close on the left" ... " all rapidy current" ... " 1/3 wide thro the Hill" ... " & 1 ? 1/3 to 1/8 mile wide a stout creek on the right comes from Badger Hill. The Hills on both sides about 4 miles apart, S 1/4 100 yds wide & ripples, SW 1/4 a rapid, S 3/4 400 yards wide, SE 3/4 3/4 mile wide & Islands & lopt pine on the left. EbN 1/2 Eachawaymamis river on the right, saw here 4 Canoes of Indians, they have nothing to Trade except a few Sucars," ... " a fine pine Island" ... " 300 yards wide & one Island, steep sandy banks on the left & a creek N 3/4 and Carry at the upper Snake falls on right side 430 yds thro the woods - good road - Falls 17 feet high in several brinks. Large Pine & Poplar on this portage - arrive at it at 4 1/3 PM very hard close grained Stone & sharp, saw a few bits of Limestone at the Portage yesterday - got both Boats over the Portage in 31 Minutes with the assistance of the 3 Indian men. left the portage at 6:20 very shoal & rapidy just below it" ... " shoal & strong" ... " strong current" ... " strong rapidy current" ... " strong current" ... " and carry on the left 155 yards, a steep hill at both ends of the Portage particularly at the lower, good, fall 20 feet high in 4 Brinks. a Boat & 1 man in it drove? down it some time ago. Man drownded & Boat broke all to pieces, many kettles worn in the Rocks at this Fall," ... " rapidy current. Good pines about these Snake Falls" ... " a hill at the ? Portage on the North side; - high steep, bare sandbanks, just below last fall" ... "& came to the 3d & last of the Snake falls, carrying place on the North side 190 yards. steep at both ends - stop here at 7:56. The strata nearly in the direction of the river."
" Wednesday - Ran the Boat down the fall with all in - can only be done in years of low water, left it at 5:35 AM. steep brink, narrow & bad edy boiling waters & dangerous even now tho' the Water is shallower than in general. The Indians left us gave them 15 lb Pimmecan amongst them went NEbE 3/4 fall about 6 feet, NbE 1/2 1/4 mile wide & an Island on the right" ... " an Island & lopt pine Jacob Corrigals," ... " 600 yards wide and an Island on the right, a few Elm trees on it the only ones we have seen in this track, a hill near on the right. NEbE 1/2 & enter Mim min is cow Lake, & go thro it as follows" ... " about 3 Miles wide or More, a large Id on our left & a narrow " ... " a hill on the right called Big Cats look out hill near 400 feet high. all hilly round this Lake, Strata large & veins of purple?" ... " rather wider" ... " about 5 miles wide having pafsed the large Island on our left." ... " enter river a rapid 60 yards an Indian portage on the right. SEbE 1/4 & carry on left or North side 90 yards, good, fall 8 3/4 feet high. The rocks at this fall lay directly acrofs the current, Strata white Quartz like? flint in veins." ... " rapidy current" ... " rapidy current. SW 1/8 strong rapid & same course 1/4 mile strong current and wider & lower end of the Indian Portage on the right, a small creek on the same side, SSE 1/3 a stout creek fall in here on the right & a high round hill on same side, then a ripple & steep white sand bank on same side" ... " all ripples about 100 yards wide. ESE 1/4 & then enter a Lake about 3 miles wide" ... " then narrower" ... "100 yards wide and put up at 5:50 PM for rain on a low sandy point on the right."
" Thursday. at 4:03 AM got away. Rain last night & wind at SSE. Thick fog & very? rain-like? this morning went in Sandy narrow Lake as last night" ... " from 1 to 4 miles wide" ... " narrow & current" ... " sandy bays and small stones on both sides in places in the Lake we have just passed" ... " a strong rapid" ... " all a very strong rapid carry on the N side at last rapid about 200 yards" ... " a rapid" ... " strong current, wide above & two Islands" ... " a ripple & 2 Islands. E 1/4 a rapid 30 yards, SbE 1/8 ripples and enter lower Elbow Lake, a bay 4 miles deep on the right," ... " 1 1/4 mile wide" ... " a river on the left. or opening go down the river" ... " a strong rapid 20 yards long SE 1/4 a strong rapid 60 yards long. SE 1/8 an other strong rapid 60 yards long SE 1/8 & carry on left 200 yards, very curious rough blocks of very hard dark & white stones with layers of very? hard dark over the rest, full 1/2 mile long: a Sturgeon Spearing place here in the Spring, found a great number heads here the Inds. had left some time ago & split & dryed the bodies. a very bad shoal rapid we? have passed perhaps 35 feet perpendicular in all & those included? we lately passed; & those before this Morning perhaps nearly the same height. lower this down with a line, the others on Poles ENE 1/2 down the rapid and enter E a be mit Lake at noon & go thro it the following courses" ... " a stout creek on the left & 6 penny point" ..." a deep bay & E a be mit river falls in in another deep bay on the left" ... " narrower here" ... " 4 miles wide & a strong ripple at end of the course & narrow" ... " steep red sand bank on the left" ... " narrows again" ... " a small river on the left & an opening on the right called Mat a wa a road for the Canadian Canoes to Fort William. opens West, ESE 3/4 Cloustons point on the left SSE3 /4 a big? Id on the right" ... " enter the river S 1/4 2 very strong rapids generally carry at both, ran them down" ... " all rapidy enter a Kind of Lake, a bay 4 miles deep on the right" ... " ripples" ... " generally 1/2 mile wide and put up on the left at 6:58 PM - foggy all day and Calm."
" Friday - at 3:55 AM got underway and went EbS 3/4 1 1/4 mile wide & several small pine Islands a ripple; SE 1/8 a ripple EbS 1/4 200 yds wide, SSE 3/4 Lake kit che wan ripple SSE 1/4 a ripple E 1/2 wider, ESE 1/2 ?sons lopt tree on left SSE 3/4 a small Lake & a way on the right to St Anns Lake in Canoes, SE 1/4 narrower and a ripple, the whole of these ripples may be set up with Poles, SbW 1/2 Eaglepoint on the left" ... " poplar fall" ... " a creek on the left & small lake 1 1/2 mile wide we pafs thro'" ... " high Sand point on left" ... " another point on the same side" ... " a river fishing weir river falls into this lake on the right NE 2 1/2 & enter the river - Geo. Sutherland river also falls out more to the right which does not join again till we come below Gloster Lake. This lake we have just passed thro called Mak a ba ton, Lake or The cloud closes up the opening, Lake in some places above 2 miles wide, round stones on the Shores & sandy in places; a deal of small poplar this day, no land in sight down the Lake we have just come thro. enter the river" ..." down it" ... " 100 yards wide a ripple" ... "a cut track thro' the Woods to Gloster Lake on the left, perhaps 3 or 4 miles NNE." ... " an Island river here 400 yards wide" ... " current " ... " a strong rapid carrying place on the right, but run it down" ... " all a bad rapid very strong called 3 mile fall or perhaps 6 mile fall about 50 yds Portage" ... " a rapid" ... " a ripple" ... " an Id and ripples" ... " a rapid" ... " a rapid, low banks small poplars & birch & some pine. E 1/4 a very strong rapid 3 mile fall a portage on the South side about 300 yards long, but we ran it down." ... " a ripple" ... " a ripple & small Island on the left" ... " a rapid" ... " all a shoal rapid, George Sutherlands river part falls in here on the right from the Lake above, which is much worse than the one we have now come down. a Track cut thro' the woods here to Gloster Lake, N 1/4 an Island" ... " near 500 yards wide, easy current" ... " & enter Gloster Lake" ... " Gloster House WbS 3 or 4 Miles & the Lake extends 4 or 5 Miles above the House or more, went down the Lake along the right shore" ... " & enter the river N 1/8, here took some Lunar Observations on our return" ...[ here I skip 3/4 of a page of observations] " a good angling place for Trout & Pike where the observations was made" ... " Thick fog till noon then flying Clouds & light airs at South, enter the river" ... " a fine gravel shore on the right where the Observations was made. ENE 1/4 120 yards wide, little current & deep, low shores, a creek on the left; black smooth hard rocks on the right," ... " strong current" ... " a ripple" ... " a rapid & an Island" ... " strong current. hawl up here" ... " wider" ... " 3/4 mile wide on the left & 3 Ids" ... " a rapid" ... " a ripple" ... " high Pine Portage on the left, carry 220 yards good, several shoal brinks hand the Boats down the upper part & run the lower with all in - Steep bank upper end of the Portage. Thunder and Rain at night."
" Saturday at 3:53 AM got underway, N 1/2 a ripple, ESE 1/4 an opening on the right the last part of Sutherlands river falls in here, from Mok? a bat ton Lake" ... " a fishing place on the right in a kind of Creek they fish at from Martins fall House" ... " a ripple" ..." wider and Islands keep on the left of them & at 5:03 arrive at a Portage & carry & Launch the Boats on the left on an Island 40 yards, Good, Fall 8 1/2 feet - got all over in 42 Minutes - Strata at this Fall E & W in many ridges, Transition Rocks & Granate, a kind of Slate the upper strata, the Slate breaks on in the usual masses of a white kind of Flint or Cherts, thro the Granate in places. The Granate ridge 4 feet thick, The Slate finly shining to the Sun like the outside of a ripe Plumb. left the Portage" ... " a large creek on the left" ... " and enter a small Lake the last to the Sea Coast called Moo soo wa ke Lake ESE 1/2 a fall comes in on the right" ... " 1/2 mile wide & an Island on the left & a small fishing house our people fish at in the fall from Martins fall house NE 1/2 a bay on the right 1 1/4 Mile deep - a good place for wild fowl?, very swampy - found here 2 Tents of Indians & got from them 5 Sturgeon for which we gave them some pimecan - They are all very black, and tough and of a small size - This is a poor Country for Moose & Deer. our Guides Brothers wifes Grandmother & Grandson here - They have 4 Canoes & Trade at Martins fall, remained with them near an Hour & went away as we expect to reach our Journeys end to Day. NNW 1/4 down the river & carried 60 yards over an Island on the left. here took the following Lunar Obs. on our Return July - fine gravel shore in the Lake above at the Small fishing House. & thick pretty small Poplars - The other side low & swampy, fall 4 1/2 feet." ...[ skipping the half page Lunar Obs. at "Moos sa wa ke Lake"] " a ripple" ... " strong current, N 1/8 a strong rapid 20 yards carry at it coming up," ..." Strong current" ... " all a very crooked strong rapid" ... " a strong rapid, N 1/8 & carry on the left 40 yards over a smooth rock, good sharpening Stones here, a kind of wrag? fall 6 3/4 feet got to it at 8:51 & left it 9:50, then went N 1/2 and carry at the Big falls on the left 390 yards good, in two falls run down the lower one, upper one 160 yards where we hawl over the Boats, rather wet in the middle, two small creeks over which is two bridges. The Indians came up to us we passed this Morning - The relation of our Guide says he will accompany us back to Red River to see his Mother. - Fall 11 1/2 feet the upper part, lower part 5 1/2 feet" ... " Left the Fall at 1:28 PM " ... " a ripple" ... " a ripple and Island & a very strong rapid 40 yards, lighten coming up on the N side called Snake rock, near NE 1/2 an Island on the right, river from 80 to 200 yards wide, steep banks in places on the left side, NNE 1/4 two Islands one called the Island of Gallalee carry over it 40 yards here took the following lunar Observations on our return 23d July 1818" [skipping 1/2 page] " NE 1/2 an Island, NE 3/4 wider, high deep bare rocks in the middle of the river, a rapid - water has been here 9 feet higher than it is now, NE 1/2 narrower and a ripple, Mr Best upset here in a small Canoe formerly - a strong rapid 40 yards, SE 1/8 a ripple & a river falls in here on the right, 20 yards wide but shoal" ... " riply current" ... " rapidy current, a steep bare bank on the right" ... " here we met Mr Wm McKay with a Boat & large Canoe going to Osnaburgh with Goods. the Canoe to return to Martins fall for another Cargo. - They have been at Albany Factory Which he left 27th June. remain with them about one Hour, gave them a little pimmican. They seem to go on very slow, but their European provisions occasions Their stopping early every day to cook it. parted with them" ... " all a strong rapid" ... " a very strong rapid called Tom Fletts fall" ... "strong rapidy current" ... " a rapid & Pine Island & head of Martins fall" ... " a strong rapid" ... " & arrive at Martins fall House at 4:39 PM found here a Mr Smith about 10 years in this Country & 2 Men - No Gardens & all the House much out of repair - delivered the Pimmecan, Drest Skins, Buffalo Robes & Bags fat. except so much as will serve us back to Osnaburgh House. Took the following Observations at Martins fall House. The Overcast weather during our short stay there prevented me from making any other" ...[skipping only a quarter page]
" Sunday Cloudy weaher."
" Monday. Heavy rain all last night & this Day with the Wind at NE could not repair the Boats. The Goods came here for us about a month ago; but they are considerably short of what was wanted, and many of them Articles not requested that has lain many years in the Factory and quite rusted: Got our cargo ready about 66 Pieces, There was 4 Bundles? of Brazil Tobacco sent up for us, not written for by Mr Bird, which on luckaly examining before we left the House, we found to be quite Moldy & not worth carrying away which we left."
" Tuesday Rain all night & until 2 PM this day when it cleared up, and we got underway and left Martins fall House & carried over the fall 250 yards on the left, pretty good, upper part thro' a point of woods - rest over flat rocks, Fall 8 1/2 feet. Two Indians came down the river in a small Canoe with a few Skins - a fine stout creek on NW side a little above the House; Several holes like Kettles worn in the Rocks at this Portage, Granate & black stone here - a good angling place for small Trout."
" Wednesday. at 6 AM we left Martins fall Portage and got to Fletts rapid at 8 1/4. lighten the Boats and hawl up it by a line a very strong, and steep rapid, proceeded on and arrived at the Island of Gallalee Portage at 7 PM where we put up after carrying every thing over. To Launch the Boats in the Morning Portage 70 yards, pretty Good, Fall 9 1/4 feet: The Indians who we met near Martins fall passed us on their way back - A Boy & Girl belonging to Mr Brown late Shallop Master at Moose factory who unfortunately was froze to Death last winter in setting hooks under the Ice near the Tent, The Children one about 8 the other 6 years old had the precaution to keep the fire alight & was fortunately found by an Indian in hunting 3 Days after & both taken care of by him - This was in the Month of Feb. last."
" Thursday. Took some Lunar observations here before we got from? the Island, which we did at 7:14 AM. Tom Favel our Guide unable to Steer since yesterday Morning - having several boils on his Back - so we have only 4 oars now in one Boat till he is able to steer again; Arrive at the Big fall at 10:05. some small bits of limestone here, saw 2 Indians here with their familys, they have nothing, one of them a relation to our Guide whose Mother is in Red River, is determined to see her, tho I have dissuaded him all I can - left the Big fall at 3:35. repaired one of our Boats here. get to next portage at 4 PM & leave at 5:25, another 1/4 mile above, carry at it on W side the Island 60 yards where we? lowered down as we went towards Martins fall - Fall 4 1/2 feet, called the Heckle fall or long Race of Moosowake, very curious rocks at the Heckle Portage on the surface like Spiders webs, hard, black & very sharp, some parts projecting above the rest like Knives standing on end. Showers of Rain at Noon. The Indians assist us carrying."
" Friday. A shower of Rain in the night, got underway at 4:23 AM 2 ripples which we pole up & go 3/4 mile and carry 30 yards and Launch on the East side the Island. Fall 3 feet, All black rocks here about, hawled up the first rapid below Moo sa wa kee Lake & then took here some Lunar observations; we got to the next Portage at 10:25 a new Track cut thro' the wood a little above the old one we passed 18 Inst? . high bank at the bottom of this fall on the North Side. we slept here the 17th Inst in going down, at 3:40 we broke Pisks Boat, stopped here to repair her & made one Steer oar we much wanted, took the Boats up by water."
" Saturday. at 4:18 AM got underway. and entered Gloster Lake at 9:35 AM where I took some observations for longtitude. Tom Favel our Guide still unable to do any thing for Boils. at 10:50 got away again and at Noon took the following Observation for Latitude at the Mouth of the River into Gloster Lake. The House 3 or 4 miles off near West" ... " Got to the first Portage up the River above Gloster Lake at 4:05 210 yards on left hand side, good, tracked up the Boats with all in & got over it 4:45 very heavy rain & put up here."
" Sunday Rain all night & this day till 3:42 PM when it cleared up; Wind strong from the Northwards - & got to the Slippery Portage at 6:35 & carried all over on the North side 160 yards, good. Got a few Trout from the Indians they have angled in the River about 2 1/2 lb each, very red, & fine eating."
" Monday. at 4:25 AM left the Slippery Portage, entered the Mok a ba ton Lake at 6:35 & got thro it at 3:25, stopped 3? Hours drying the coverings &c., a fine low sandy point & bay. put up at 7:10. I steered one Boat thro the Lake as we had a head wind - Tom Favel can do nothing; put up at the She mat tow wa."
" Tuesday. at 4:35 AM got underway & at 9 1/4 enter Eabemet? Lake fall stop here 1 1/4 hour & took the following Observations" ... " The Boats got to the head of the Falls at 1:50 where I took the Observation, lower part go up on the N side, upper part on the South side, hawl all up, carry nothing, very strong about 150 yards. Gave the Indians 1 pint of Spirits each for assisting us on the Portage & fishing - young Ducks &c they give us. put up at 8:30 PM a good way thro the E a be met Lake Sailed a little in the afternoon. The Indians behind drinking."
" Wednesday Thunder & rain in the night. at 5:56 AM got away & at 6 1/4 Arrived at the West end of E a be met Lake - & the beginning of the rapids. a creek on the SS just at the foot of the rapid & entrance of the Lake, carried 210 yards on N Side where we handed down, very strong, 1:05 in getting up it: at 9:53 the 2 Boats left the Portage. The other Portage on N Side 560 yds got to it at 2:25; into a back bay carry when the water is high, did not carry here going down. began the Rapid at 2:30 and it was 6:30 before both Boats got over this long & Strong Rapid. I went over the Portage into the bay above then crofsed over a point of Land to the head of the rapid. very level & good, put up at Ne ta wan ga Lake at 7:15. steepish rocks & slept in the Woods. an old hut here, from last winter. Indians came up with us at up putting time."
" Thursday. at 4:02 AM got off & arrive at the Portage at 3:42 PM left it at 5:10, here we overtook Mr McKay, with one Boat & Canoe we met above Martins fall. This Portage is called by the Albany people 1/2 way in Time from Martins fall to Osnaburgh House. They went on & we put up in Company at 7:12. rain this afternoon & very heavy at Times. put up in the first narrow above the last portage on the right."
" Friday. At 4:36 AM we All embarked together & to keep company till we arrive at Osnaburgh altho this will retard us 2 or 3 Days, as we go on better than them, but we can well assist each other in Launching the Boats at the Portages. at 11:50 got to lower Snake fall, which is not 8 yards wide at the bottom. a great Manneto by the Indians, portage very steep at the lower end, WSW & ESE the Strata lays here, left it at 3:42 & put up at the 2d or middle Snake fall at Sunset & loaded the Boats, ready to start early in the morning."
Aug. 1 1818
" Saturday. Got ready to start at 4 1/4 AM but found Tom Favels boat greatly sunk in the water & Goods wet in her. took every thing immediately out & found a piece of the Caulking had hawled out in dragging her over the Portage. repaired her, loaded & proceeded as we cannot open & dry the Goods till near noon where we may find a convenient place, put some of the wet Bales in the other Boat to lighten us. - I hope the Powder will sustain little damage. - got to the upper Snake fall at 8:10 where I got all hands to carry over all the wet cargo & we proceeded at 3 miles above where we found a good spot, here we opened, spread & dryed every thing, & at 2 PM the other Boats & Canoe came to us & the Albany people proceeded on & we got every thing well dried & packed up again; nothing worse except some of the Red Leather Looking Glasses; At 5 PM got every thing well packed again & we embarked, made an Oar here. - at 7 1/4 PM we came up to where the Albany Men had put up here? we also stopped. - a River just above where we dryed our Goods on the small Pine Island, on the S Side called Chay pus quy on? River."
" Sunday. At 4:40 AM embarked all in company; very rain like; got to the Shakespears & over the lower one on N Side 310 yards, lower end Swampy, upper end fine level & dry put up here 2 Boats cargoes carried over. Sandflies rather troublesome."
" Monday. Began to carry at 4:55 AM & left the Portage at 6:40 and got all over the upper Shakespear at 10 1/4 & left it; a hawling up place just above it & at the head of the upper ripple" [Observation]" at 2PM passed the creek where we slept at & made Oars the 2d day from Osnaburgh & put up at 6:08 just above the 2d ripple above the Creek. The Men complain of the mouldy Pimmican which is near done, tho they had at Martins fall 18 Day full allowance of Pimmican & 5 Days Pork & Flour or 12 pieces Pork & 60 lb flour. I at last found that this scarsity was their giving the Albany Men Pimmican who are in Company as the usual allowance is only 18 Days from Martins fall to Osnaburgh in a Boat 5 Men & 40 pieces Goods."
" Tuesday. At 4:49 AM got underway, Thunder & rain before we started, arrive at the lower Cook e a me at 4:10 PM 180 yards N Side, rocky good, got all over & put up, heavy Thunder & rain, took the Boats up by water."
" Wednesday. at 4:44 AM got off, cloudy, got to the next Portage at 4:56 leave it at 6:12 - To the 3d at 6:23 leave it 8:36 about 60 yards on South Side called Swift Cook e a me, hawl up on the South side with all in, very strong all the way to the High Cook e a me, which last place we left at 1:20 PM got to the lick in the hole Portage at 4:02 left it 5:06 & stopped at the foot of the last ripple below the Smooth stony Portage at 6:04 - Our Men has now nothing to eat owing to their carllefsnefs & giving it a way to the Albany Men. told them to use the flower served out for their winters allowance at Martins fall 5 Men off them 20 lb each, and for all? hands to live on that to Osnaburgh, when each man who has not got his allowance shall have the quantity each person uses out of his flour allowed him when he gets to Red River - as they have been so wasteful it is nothing but just they should be in part sufferers as they want now 5 Days of their full allowance being served to them: we have Pimmican left at Osnaburgh to serve us to Ska be chewan where we left 4 Bags to serve us to Red River."
" Thursday. Two Days ago Mr Atkinson & an Indian had came from Osnaburgh to meet us & now in Company. at 4:44 AM got away, cold clear frosty morning - being very early in the Season. at 7:02 arrive at the Smooth stony Portage and left it 1:02. stopped at the upper bad shoal ripple at 6:25 PM. Strong wind ahead & fine Day. Mr Atkinson met us near upper Elbow Lake. we keep company."
" Friday. at 4:43 AM embarked. got to the upper portage below Osnaburgh House 9:58, left it 12:31 hawl the Boats up with all the Cargo in, Cold clear calm morning at 3:01 PM arrive at Osnaburgh House; All well here, but getting at this Season as usual very few fish - One of the Mens women died here 8 Days ago. They say scarse a day has passed since we left the House 12 last Month without rain - in consequence The Potatoes look extraordinary well, as being planted in pure sand: very few Indians been here since our departure. Fine weather thro' the Day."
" Saturday. Put false Keels to our two Boats, as the others were worn even with the bottom: & got every thing ready to go away for Red River tomorrow."
" Sunday. at 9:35 AM left Osnaburgh House for Red River. - The Indian Man & his wife accompany us, he is determined on seeing his mother which he has not this long while past. 4 Men going down to Martins fall in a Canoe for Goods & when they return here, Hugh Linklater & family is to come up to Red River to Settle; we take part of his property with us: Light Airs at South: at 5:02 PM we put up at the lower side the Grand Traverse. Showers of Rain in the Day."
" Monday - Made whilst at Osnaburgh the 7 & 8th Inst many Astronomical observations which is inserted at the Time we passed in July. at 5:14 AM we got underway, rain till then, stopped for rain in the course of this Day Three several times, in the whole three Hours at 7:15 put up near where we did going down. Strong wind ahead, evening nearly calm."
" Tuesday - at 4:27 AM got underway & arrived at the height of Land Portage at 3 PM & got all over at 7:38 - many blue berries all along. now entirely ripe - stopted? in the Day 1 3/4? hours to dry the Boats coverings: Thunder & a little rain in the Day. Muskettoes now very plentiful. water 7 Inches higher in the Creek at the South end of the Portage than when we passed."
" Wednesday at 4:29 AM we got away. a large creek just below Pancake fall on the South side, put up on cat Portage all over at 6 3/4 PM & dryed the coverings; Stoped? twice in the Day for heavy rain to dry our coverings Three Hours - very heavy rain at times."
" Thursday. Got the Boats over & left the upper cat Portage at 5:15 AM."[observation]" taken at the lower end of the narrow Creek at the entrance into Berstons Lake. at 6 3/4 PM we put up at the entrance of Lake Sal. got several Ducks from the Indian man who accompany us. Raspberries now ripe; very few Saskutteen berries."
" Friday at 4:12 AM embarked. Calm & thick fog some time"[observation]" Taken in a narrow of Lake Sal: Saw 3 Indian Canoes at noon, They have nothing except 1 otter skin - they have just been at the Canadian House in this Lake; put up at the Canadian Fishing Stage about 15 miles North of their? House at 7:10. Strong wind a head which delays us much."
" Saturday. at 4:55 AM got off, Wind still a head, but more moderate than yesterday. arrive at the Canadian House at 12:20 & left it at 1:08. They are now catching scarsely a Single fish, living on Rice purchased from the Indians here last Summer - Indians all left the House about a week ago to make more rice, about 14 Men, who when drunk was very near taking the Property from them & was near Killing the Master Nicholas: 4 Men at the House - The Albany people propose building here in the Fall where Haldane drove Mr Still? from about 10 or 11 years ago. a great deal of large Silver Fir & birch here. in the evening we sailed & put up after Dark near Hanging Island. Calm cold night & clear. Wind Northerly."
" Sunday. at 4:18 AM got underway & within one mile of the West end of Lake Sal took the following Observation" ... " at 1:17 PM arrive at the Portage, arrive at the 2d at 3:19 & got the 2 Boats over the 2 in 46 Minutes, upper one took them down by water, which detained us a great deal longer than had we dragged them over the Portage - The Strata & rocks lay here WNW & ESE true, some sand stone. left the 2d Portage at 5:40 & put up at 6:53 at Cribesas? point on the left."
" Monday. Rain, got away at 6 AM at 8 1/2 passed the Three points or road to Red Lake. at 10:47 got to the five falls & took at the upper end of the Long Portage, the"[observation]" The first or upper fall 9 1/2 feet; 2d fall 7 1/4 Feet, 3d two feet, 4th 13 feet narrow & steep, left them at 4:32 & got to the next fall at 5:20, 12 feet high, left it at 6:40 and put up at 7:28 at a ripple where we angled Pike."
" Tuesday. Rain from 3 to 9 1/2 AM, got away at 9:53 and arrive at the Three falls at 4:38 PM. at the 2d at 5:26 leave it 6:36. The 3d got all over & Loaded the Boats at 7:31 PM. One of the Boats very near went down the last one by running too near the head of it, but luckily she grounded which prevented her being broke to pieces: obliged to unload some distance from the Shore."
" Wednesday. At 4:42 AM got away, a thick fog. arrive at the Ska bee che wan fall at 9:23. 7 1/2 feet fall, left the Portage at 11:17 & enter the Ska bee che wan Lake & go to the North end of the Narrow & take the following Observations. The Clouds &c? would not allow others" ... " Arrive at our House at Ska bee she wan at 1:48 PM & found all well, but get now very few fish. got our provisions? left here & embarked again at 4:03 - The Master informs me the Indians were very troublesome this Summer when at the House, put up at 6:35 in Wa ben a ban Lake."
" Thursday at 4:47 AM got away; water lower by 18 Inches than when we passed here last, and above the 5 falls one foot higher - Saw 3 Tents of Indians and got from them a few Ducks. They have no Provisions. at Noon took the following Observation" ... " Taken 3/4 mile East of Tates Stone & 1 mile west of Vincents Lopt Tree & near 3 miles from East end of Old Soldiers Narrows, put up at the Big fishing Stone at 7:05 in the same place we angled many fish 30th June where we stopt?. Strong wind a head, all day."
" Friday. at 4:43 AM embarked. Thick fog, & arrived at the Portage at 7:05. 6 3/4 feet fall leave at 9:03 & arrive at 2d Portage at 9:22. The water 15 Inches shoaler at the head of this fall than before; left it 10:50. arrive at the 3d Portage at 10:55 (carry 280 yards fall below) and bad, no carrying there, so carry over the usual portage Thro' the Point of Woods, here got" [Observation]" Left the Portage 2:37, very hot & calm, put up at the lower end of McNabs Lake 7:10 saild 2 Hours. Three Tents of Indians here, Traded from them some dry Meat, Parchment Skins & Berries. - Saw an Indian & his wife at the Three falls but they had nothing."
" Saturday. At 4:32 AM left the Indians arrived at the next carrying place at 8:23, Rain, left it 11:15 & at 2:40 PM arrived at Portage d'Isle in the Athpescow Track where I found a letter he had (Mr Duncan Campbell) left for me on his return from Rain Lake to Norway House ran down on the North side the Island. Put up at 7:10 PM."
" Sunday. at 4:50 AM got underway, saw some Indians soon after & they 8 Canoes of Our people has pafsed yesterday from Montreal, with many Canadian Settlers & Capt. Mathey in Company. arrive at the Next portage at 6:45 leave it 8:20. Stopt for rain at 9 1/2, & off again at 1:03 PM - upper one of McKays falls 7 feet - arrive at it 2:30 PM, left it 4:35 & got to 2d at 4:37 17 feet high, left it 5:43, to to lower one at 5:55 & over it at 7:15 & stoped here, fall 8 feet. The two upper ones all one fall out in the middle of the river, carry at the whole Three on the North side."
" Monday. at 4:55 AM got away & arrive at Slave fall at 6:10, 16 feet high, leave it 9:35, Smooth rock Portage 11:34 leave it 2:22 repaired one of our Boats here - spoke sharply to Tom Favel our? Guide we is so very dilitory in going on; at 5:05 ran Down Jack Easters Fall near the head of the Pin na wa & put up at 7:15 at the head of the 7 falls & took the "[observation].
" Tuesday. at 4:37 AM got underway first fall 9 feet, 2d at 6:17 - 9 1/2 feet; 3d 7:42 - 7 1/2 feet - 4th 9:18 7 feet lower down 5th 10:45, rain here; left the 6th 1:25 PM, very little water in White river now, which was so full as we went up owing to the late heavy rains; Stoped 1 1/2 hour for rain, put up at the upper war fall at 7:09 PM. We keep down a more northerly branch then we did in going up."
" Wednesday. off at 4:55. 5 1/2 feet fall. 2d war fall 6:25 thick fog, leave it at 7:05 & arrive at the Big Bonnet Portage at 8 1/4. 18 minutes walk acrofs this Portage, now very dry. The Men got all carried & the Boats down by water & loaded again at 1:46 PM. 4 Brinks at this portage about 26 feet! [his exclamation mark] here at the lower side of the Portage took the following Observations" ... " Arrive at the Little Bonnet Portage at 2:00. 6 feet high, leave it 3:26 get to the Guttery fall at 4:55. 11 feet carry all over, load the Boats, & put up here for the Night at 7:14 PM."
" Thursday - got away at 4:43 AM & arrive at the Next? Portage at 5:43, leave at 7:34. at the 2d Quicksilver falls 7:36. The whole of the Quicksilver falls about 30 feet & found here a paper parcel belonging to our Mr Clark in the Athapescow forgot here by Capt. Mathey who has lately passed took it with us, leave it at 10:16 & get last portage at 12:42, stopt 35 Minutes above, Pisk wet some things in his Boat by running down a rapid, leave the portage at 3:19 and arrive at the Canadian House where I went ashore to hear the Red River News, Sorin? & Young McKenzie here? Donells? Son, stopt at the House 29 Minutes & again embark. The Barley & wheat ready to cut down, seems to be a good Crop, also Potatoes, at 5 1/2 PM enter Lake Winnipic & go to Stocking point & found it so dark that we was obliged to stop, altho we intended to go all night; put up near Stocking Point at 10:14 PM. before this stopped one Hour, & repaired Tom Favils Boat. The Canadians exultingly told us that 40 Murons was going to leave the Colony as the Grafshoppers had destroyed their Crops. The NW are ever ready to spread all the bad news they can."
" Friday. at 4:25 AM we embarked. slept on a small rock till daylight, arrived at Red Deers Island at 8 AM, saild all morn'g with a light wind. Capt. Mathey & 8 Canoes passed the French House at 5 PM on the 25th Instant, we go on very slowly in a very great measure owing to our Guide Tom Favil, notwithstanding all I can say to him, at 7:08 PM entered Red River & put up, Sailed the Latter part, middle of the day Calm. beyond Hunters point in the Lake a very heavy storm has been from the NW ward about a Month or 5 weeks ago that has broke almost every tree down for near 6 miles along the edge of the Lake & twisted all the rest in a very surprising & powerful manner - I never observed the same but one in the Saskatchewan River in May 1802 where the woods were all broken down but only about 300 yards wide."
" Saturday. Rain & Thunder all night & got off at 6:20 AM & pafsed Dead River at 11:20, sailed some reaches above it & put up for rain below Hillers old House at 1 3/4 PM & at 4:07 cleared up again & we embarked, put up at 7 PM on the North side."
" Sunday. Embarked at 4:50 AM & at 6 AM passed a Canad. Man taking care of some Goods, belonging to us Mr Loggan & others had left, they are gone to the Colony but to return soon & go to Rain Lake. at 10 3/4 AM arrived at the Image plain & left it at 12 oClock. I went by Land 2 1/2 hours good walking - one 1/2 hour from Image to Frog plain. at 5 PM our Boats arrived & unloaded. Just as I arrived Mr Roderick? McKenzie & 8 Canoes were ready to Embark for Montreal, he & some others are going down as witnefses there for things? commited? by the NWC in the Athapescow Country. Mr Graffenreid? also went down to Montreal; Mr McKenzie in a Single Canoe with 8 Canadians left Norway House 15 Aug. with Letters for Montreal but they all happened to be on shore together in the Day time & they neglected to tye the Canoe, when a gust of wind drove out the Canoe, & before it was perceived by any of the Party she was driven out of their Depth. with all the Letters, Papers, Clothing. Provisions &c &c. & drove out to sea near 30 Miles from Norway House: luckely another boat came up the next day & took them all up - about 16 Days after as some of our People were going from Cumberland Ho. to Norway House they found the Canoe driven on Shore near 10 Miles to the Westward & every thing recovered, even the paddles, but the Clothing was spoilt by rain or water, when the Papers were got, they were sent away to Montreal in a small Canoe with three men. Peter Knight also goes down to Montreal as evidence as a partner & 2 Clerks last Spring took all our Furs from Deer Lake House in the Churchill Department. The Grafshoppers has made Great havoc in the Crops at the Colony particularly in the Barley scarsely leaving any. The 3d August they came in great Clouds from the SWestward & in two Days there was scarsely any barley left standing. in some places they did great damage to the Potatoes & wheat; The Fishing this Summer has been bad, owing to the very low state of the Water, but our People at Fort Dair get plenty of Dry Provisions from Botteneau & other freemen tho at the very high price of 12 lb for one Dollar. None of our People yet arrived here from York Factory; The NW are making an excellent House & fine Stockades of ? Oak. Grant rem'd? up all Summer - Mr Angus Shaw who was an old Trader in? the North for the NWC but absent Many years came up & is gone towards the Saskatchewan River - Old Peltier & several other persons were taken down as witnefses for the NWC in July. fine weather."
" Monday. Busily employed in examining & drying some of the Goods that got wet in Pisks Boat in running down a Rapid in Winnipic River, but nothing damaged: packed all up again: Sent a Letter down by Peirish? 10 Miles for England as our Gentlemen who Embarked for Montreal was to remain there till 6 oClock this morning - where Mr Logan left his Family whilst he went up to the Forks."
Sept. 1 1818
" Tuesday. Got every thing ready to send one Boat & 5 Men to Norway House with 40 Bags Pimmican & a part of the Goods we now brought up from Albany: Yesterday 2 of our Men with Boys came from Brandon house with 6 Cart Loads of Pimmican left there in June. The Indians have been very quiet all Summer; water very low in the River. and a very dry season scarse a single shower of Rain all summer, all the Potatoes & Garden stuff quite? burnt out as also the 2 1/2 Bushels of Barley sown there when 3 Inches high all killed by the Great drought - These 3 Summers past remarkably little rain - as also very little Snow in winter. quite different from what it used to be."
" Wednesday. at 9 AM Sent off a Boat & 5 Men to Norway House with Pimmican & some particular Goods they want in the Saskatchewan River. at 10 AM also loaded the whole Six Carts lately came here with Pimmican from Brandon House. 36 Pieces of Trading Goods - I remain here expecting the Arrival of Mr Sutherland every day. Mr Stills? Gardens & wheat looks pretty well, having had a tolerable quantity of Rain here this Summer. The Rain Lake Indian Chief a Metis? arrived here yesterday with a few men by way of Fort Dair, Colonists now very busy cutting down their wheat which will be a tolerable crop notwithstanding the great havoc made by the Grafshoppers early in August - The Murons have been very busy building their Houses this Summer. They are a very industrious people, by far the best Settlers here of any other Nation."
" Thursday. Went round the greater part of the Colony - very great additions & improvements during the time I have been absent at Martins fall. - in the evening very ?. - I am told that amongst the whole of the People who had barley that there may be preserved near 60 Bushels from the Grafshoppers very few Oats were sown last spring. - The Catfish during their 3 Summers have also been very scarse & much inferior to what they used to be, but fortunately vast numbers of Buffalo have kept pretty near Fort Dair all Summer & the Freemen have well supplied all the People but their price is high 12 lb of any kind of Dry provisions valued at one Dollar."
" Friday. Thunder and Rain in the night. Sent away 5 Men to bring up a large boat belonging the Company about 12 Miles below left by Mr Loggan & party. The NW Grant Master at their Fort all Summer has got the Whole now enclosed with Pickets, The 3 Sides all sizable Oak Trees 14 feet above the Ground all sawn - he paid for sawing them when brot to the spot after the rate of 12 Dollars for 108 Pickets or 52 logs sawn in two. Some days the 2 Men with one Saw split in two 9 of these logs pr Day: about 980 encloses the whole space, They will? run near 8 Inches at least on an average."
" Saturday. Went round the Muron Settlers to agree some to make some buildings here & saw boards - as there is not 2 Mens work for 2 Days done here since 19th June last, altho there has been sometimes above 20 Men fed by Mr Stitt? but he could get nothing done. The Murons are they say busy in getting in their Little Crop & making Cellars to secure their potaotes in for the Winter. but engaged 2 Canadians able Men to saw Boards - In the Spring 4 Murons were engaged to cut down & square logs for Buildings & put them on the spot for 8d? each log."
" Sunday. Went to Mafs - all the Murons & Canadians there, but none of the Scotch people - the 3 Priests or Missionaries are very much beloved by all people - and they take great pains & trouble to learn the young Brulies? their Catechison &c &c - they almost daily visit every Indian & Free Canadians Tent to instil into their minds religious principals. They are indefatgable? - a Considerable quantity of Timber they have got on the Spot, ready squared where they intend to build their Church, it is almost opposite the Mouth of the Assiniboyne River on the E side the Red River. They have about 350 yds in front, it is a very good situation. They have about 9 Men belonging to them & I am told before they left Canada to come here this Spring that a subscription was made for them amounting to above 2,000 £ Sterling but that the NWC would not subscribe the least to them. Many of the Indian Women are daily attending the Priests to receive Instruction, Confefsion &c &c & the Priests say the Country is far better than they at first imagined it to be. Every Sunday they have Prayers three times a day - which is very regularly attended. The whole Three Priests dine with the Governor until their Buildings are compleated. - Four Indians arrived from Lac La Pluie, but have nothing with them - Delorm who has been in the Colony & NWC Services these 3 years went down last fall for an evidence on behalf of the Colony but got seemingly seduced by the NW Company at Montreal & came up this Summer for them. he is now at their Post at Pambina - he is no acquisition to either party."
" Monday. Got the lent of a Pit Saw from one of the Murons as the Company has none here, to saw boards here, as the 3 small low dirty hovels we have here are a disgrace to the Service wherein Mr Still? & 10 Men remained since last fall. Sent 3 Men to make a Sawpit & cut down wood about 2 or 3 Miles up the Red River; 2 of the NW Men with Carts & horses came here from Brandon House, they say they had a remarkable Hail Storm at Portage des Prarie coming here - One of our Beaver Creek Batteaux laying here, and people frequently taking away the Nails - got her hawled up & burnt & all the Nails collected to use again for the same purpose next Spring."
" Tuesday. A sharp frost in the night the first we have had this fall - 4 Men rafting down building Logs. water rising fast in the Red River owing to heavy rains above? - at 7PM Mr McBean the NW Proprietor arrived here in one Canoe and 7 Men, This is the first time of his being in this part of the Country - we understand he is to winter at Riviere Qu'Apelle, Mr Grant at Pambina who is also a late partner; McBean left his 8 Canoes for this Quarter at Rain Lake Bostonais Pangman returned with McBean, one who was the Most forward in the destruction of the Colony."
" Wednesday. Little rain - Tom Favil & 2 Men who are here I desired Mr Still? to employ them about the House but they received no orders from him to do any thing; The Rain Lake Chief & 2 Indians returned, he got a present of Rum &c from the Colony: he says he & party are going up to the boarders of the Sioux Country direct? & kill a number of Beaver and be down here again before the Ice sets in - but I much doubt he will not make his promise good: he was very active during the American war for the British & rec'd suitable presents from Government on that account. - one Man hawling up logs from the Waters edge to build a Shop the first thing for the Store Keeper Mr Henry Eustace to retail out the Goods to all the Settlers & which Shop is to be now on the Companys account: The Goods are charged on the Invoice from England at 75 pr Cent advance, but to be retailed out at 100 pr Cent above their original cost in England. several Sturgeon now appear in the River, They have been very scarse all Summer, which is attributed to the Shoalnefs of the water: at 8 PM one of our Canoes arrived from Montreal with a young Mr Forrest & 9 Men; The Canoe left Montreal 23d July & Mr Forrest only came with her from Drummonds Island. The principal purpose of the Canoe being sent up here is with Warrants to Apprehend near Seventy People concerned in the Distruction of the Colony as well as for several Crimes committed by the Partners, Clerks & Servants of the NW Company on the Hudsons Bay Company in various parts of this Country; some of the Acts Committed more than 10 Years ago - also a Warrant for ? Skein Ogden a NW Clerk for Murdering a Cree Indian at the Green Lake House 3 years ago because the Indian wanted to Trade with us. It is judged best not to attempt to execute any of the Warrants this fall: altho' there several? in this vicinity - because the Fort Douglas is a scarse place in winter for Provisions to Maintain all the Prisoners besides want of proper accomodations to secure them: but in the spring near the time of Embarkation it is at present intended to execute them. - Most all our Gentlemen with the exception of Capt. Miles McDonell & Mr McNab are gone to the upper Province of Canada to attend the tryals that is to take place at York or Sandwich - Lord Selkirk is also gone there & then when those tryals are determined it is said his Lordship intends proceeding direct for England to endeavour to get the future Law proceedings to be determined in England as the Judges of Canada are so intimately connected with the NW Company & thought on that account to be partial to them."
" Thursday: The 2 Sawyers finished sawying flooring for a Shop to retail Goods out in to the Settlers - There is the Copies of two Petitions on behalf of the Scotch & Muron Settlers to the House of Lords & Commons to be fairly copied & Signed by them all, & to be transmitted this winter to London claiming protection from Government on behalf of themselves against the Mischief still threatened against them by the NW Company."
" Friday - Water rising in the River."
" Saturday. Got all the writing nearly finished & the Settlers signed the Petitions to Government."
" Sunday - at 2 PM 2 of our Men with 3 Boys came here from Brandon House & brought down 19 Bags of Pimmican & 100 lb Dry Meat; they are come for Goods as we have long expected the Arrival of Mr Sutherland & the Boats for this Quarter - There is very few Men now at the Houses. & the Indians beginning to come in in Numbers; all well above - at 6 PM Mr Forrest & the Montreal Canoe returned to that place with Letters & papers. & I expect they will reach their Journeys end by Water if even common expedition is used altho' the Canoe was long in making the Voyage hither. Wrote several Letters & sent by them for England as I had no opportunity since June. Two of the Priests in a Boat with 5 Men went to Fort Dair, the first time any of them has gone there - Our Men was 6 Days coming down from Brandon House."
" Monday Rain in the night."
" Tuesday 4 Canoes loaded belonging to the NWC arrived from Fort William - Most part of the Wheat all stacked it is imagined the whole will amount to 700 Bushels when Threshed - Water still rising in the River - our Crop here of wheat very backward owing to its being sown 3 weeks after the proper time."
" Wednesday. a NW Batteaux arrived with Goods from the Winnipic River House."
" Thursday Eight NW Carts arrived from Brandon House to carry up Goods - as little can be taken there in Canoes the water very shoal in the Assiniboyne River - Yesterday several of the Settlers Cos? Old Servants came for Supplies from the Colony from the Village they are forming 3 miles above the white Horse plain & to be called Birsay after Magnus Spense from the Parish of that name in the Orkney Islands it is about 22 Miles above Fort Douglas; also Yesterday arrived a Colony Boat from York Factory arrived at which place? she had been and left YF about 5 August, & brought up 2 Cows. one Bull: 3 Pigs or 2 Sows & one Boar, also 22 Cwt? of Bar Iron & some other articles for the use of the Settlement. The NW Craft all arrived at the Forks having 7 Canoes & 1 Batteaux."
" Friday The NWC sent away 10 Carts with Goods to Brandon House & 5 Canoes went up there with 10 pieces only in each on account of the shoalnefs of the water. I am very anxious that our Craft should arrive from Norway house, as all the NW are arrived & gone to the different Houses. The 2 Sawyers cut 137 Boards of 10 feet each. They are engaged at 1 Dollar each Pr Day which will come to near 1/6 pr Day sterling besides their Provisions."
" Saturday Mr McDonell went to Birsay & measured out in breadth 14 Lots of land of to be 100 Acres each, breadth in front 220 yards each, where several of the HBC old Servants are settling with Old Magnus Spense. it is called Birsay after the place of his native parish in the Orkneys. They have chosen this situation about 22 Miles above Fort Douglas as being nearer to the Buffalo grounds in Winter when the fish are scarse."
" Sunday. Mr Storg? the Colony Master at Fort Dair & Botteneau their principal Hunter arrived from that place - Went to Mafs - one of the Brulee' girls asked in the Church a 2d time with one of the Murons settlers. Three days ago the Colony sent away people to Trade rice with the Indians near Bonnet Lake but having met the Indians in this River they have all returned together this Day. They have been too long in sending there to trade it. The NW at Winnipic river having got the best part but this has been a scanty Summer for it in those places. on the 18th one of the Leech Lake Bungees stabbed a young Soteaux woman here - and it was with difficulty made up between the parties; the upper country Inds. all went away the next day: - The whole of the Corn & part off the Potatoes taken up. Grant, the NW Proprietor not yet gone up to Pambina where he is to Winter."
" Thursday. Self with Men & 6 Carts left the Forks for Brandon House with Goods. none of our people yet returned that went down to the Factory 3 Months ago - got to Birsay at Sun Set & put up there: we expect to Reach Brandon House in Six Days."
" Friday. Left Birsay at 6 AM & put up in sight of Portage des Prarie point at 5 PM - very fine weather; Mr Monkman accompanies us a little way farther, he is going to the Big point House in Mannetoba Lake."
" Saturday. at 5 1/2 AM we got away & in 4 Hours arrived at the Portage Point; Then went afterwards 2 3/4 Hours and got to the Musk rat creek & put up pretty early. Mr Monkman left us in the Morning."
" Sunday. at 5 1/2 AM got off & in 4 1/2 Hours got to some small Lakes where we stopped some time to rest the Horses; and in 2 1/4 Hours more we reached the Bad Woods, now pretty good Road - & 1 1/4 Hour more we reached the Miry Creek & put up."
" Monday. at 5 1/2 AM got away & reached the rice? Lakes in 4 1/2 Hours, here we stopped 2 Hours & saw an Indian who had nothing - & in 5 1/2 hours more we reached the Root River, we put up there; we keep more to the right than the usual road, as it is better crofsing that River, than lower down."
" Tuesday at the usual time we got away. & in 4 1/2 Hours we got to the edge of the Plain - over all the hilly ground, and in 1 1/3 hour more reached Brandon House & found all well - 34 Tents of Indians. James Inkster has been obliged to hire two Men to assist him with his few? men whilst the Indians were drinking - last night in a drinking bout one Indian split the Skull of another with an Ax. & he died instantly - They are very frequently climbing over the Stockades of the fort & are otherwise very Troublesome - seeing so very few people about the House - Mr McKenzie the NW Summer Master at Riviere Qu'appelle here these 4 Days, he is going down to the Forks to remain there all winter. Our People are very much troubled by the Indians & we have so very few people there."
" Wednesday. Indians all drinking. and the whole is encamped at our House: French sent away to hunt, The Buffalo are about 16 Miles from this House."
Oct. 1 1818
"Thursday The 5 NW Canoes arrived here from the Forks - Our Men went on Hunting: Yorstons Guide the NW Cree chief rigged and a grand silver breast ornament given him - This I imagine to be as a partizan? to them in case at any time they might require the Aid of his Services in any dirty work about the Colony."
" Friday. Three Carts & Men went to the Forks with Pimmican & to meet our Boats to bring up Goods by Land - also sent down several Parchment Skins to our House there. Sent one Cart & Goods to Beaver creek House; Geo McRae one of the Colony men accompanied us up going to Beaver Creek Ho. & wrote to Geo Setter to Trade as many Horses as he pofsibly could for the use of the Colony, and to purchase them as cheap as possible - Some of our Indians went away & others drinking."
" Saturday. Two Men cutting wood for Charcoal - The greater part of the Indians pitched away. They very much want debts as usual, but we are yearly such great loosers by giving them that it is best to give none - only advanced debts to 2 or 3 Men. Water is now as high in the river as the first of June last - but too shoal to come up in any reasonable time with loaded Boats - One Man constantly looking after horses, his sole attendance whilst they are out."
" Sunday. The last of the Indians pitched away. - an Ind? Big nose came from Beaver creek house lately all well there 4 days ago Mr McKenzie NW went to the Forks with 2 Carts and Horses he is to remain there all winter as master."
" Monday 3 Men cutting poplar for charcoal - Charles & one Man put up 3 Haystacks thrown down by the Indians & He with? Mr McBean a proprietor of the NWC went from here to Qu'Appelle with 12 Carts loaded with Goods, before starting he & Poitras the NW Master here this winter came over & we agreed to give only one Skin in Goods for a Large Beaver skin. whereas then? last few years we have regularly given two on both sides - also agreed to send from neither House to Indians Tents, but to allow the Natives to bring in the few furs they kill here - as by this means we purchase them cheaper, as there is always an unavoidable unnecefsary expence when we go to the Tents for them - a few days ago Butterflies and the Blue bottle flies pretty numerous. Jn Lyons a freeman & his Family here these 10 Days - Traded a Tent ? a Freeman got 25 lb Beat Meat for each Skin it contained - This is cheap Trading as we usually give onely 1/2 pint mixt rum (Leeward Island) with 4 waters to one of Liquor."
" Tuesday. Charles Fidler & one Man got 12 Axel Trees for Carts to be ready when wanted. others as yesterday. Took here the Double Merdian Altitude of Suns " [skipped]
" Wednesday. 4 Indians came in with Dry provisions Traded and they went away. They speak of going soon to the Mandan Villages to purchase Horses, as they are friends?. The Men variously employed."
" Thursday. All the Freemen pitched away. Men piled up one Charcoal kiln - very strong gale at West."
" Friday. 2 Stone Indians came here, we suppose as Thieves. Men as before."
" Saturday. Men constantly at work cutting & piling wood to make charcoal of for smiths use."
" Sunday Two of the NW Horses missing supposed to be stolen by the two lately come here."
" Monday. All hands cutting wood & covered the 4th Charcoal Kiln about 9 Chords of wood each."
" Tuesday. Men as usual about the Charcoal Kilns - Heavy Thunder and rain in the Night."
" Wednesday. Finished covering the 4 Charcoal Kilns with Earth &c. 2 Men got mud for repairing the Chimneys - 2 Canadians came from the Forks & inform us of Mefs Sutherland and McKay having arrived there from Norway House. and to start for this place very soon - Cooper & Charles finished making small Kegs. set fire to the Charcoal Kilns."
" Thursday. An Indian arrived here our Trader, he is just now returned from the Mandans & has Traded 4 Horses with them but at a high price - Two Men rep'd the 2 Chimneys in the new House built this Summer for Mr Sutherland as he is expected to winter here. - Ice 3/4 Inch thick on the standing water but I expect the whole will dissolve again being too early in the Season to remain. Sent 2 Boys with Horses to meet Mefs Sutherland & McKay as we soon expect them here. Lyons & our Brulee' hunter accompanied them."
" Friday. Charles hewing cart axel Trees, others variously emp'd about the House except 2 Men who constantly must attend the Charcoal Kilns - very thick snow for 1/2 an hour at 8 AM covered the Ground 3/4 Inch deep, strong wind WNW."
" Saturday Men variously employed."
" Sunday. Strong Gale at W with Snow. at 9 AM 4 Ind. stole 3 Horses & 2 foals belonging to Jn Lyons, before one of our men who was not 50 yds from them 1 mile from the House - when he wanted them to let them alone, they pointed their Guns at him - & he was obliged to let them go away with them - he thinks they are Stone Indians. The Indian who lately came from the Mandans told me that they had sent a Message by him for us to send Goods there to trade Beaver skins. he supposes they may have near 200 - Lyons & the Boys ret'd at night saw 3 Carts at Bad woods but no officer with them."
" Monday. snow most part of the afternoon & fell 2 1/2 Inches. Sent the Hunters away to hunt - 5 Carts of NW men went on hunting at 9 AM killd 10 Cows and returned loaded at 5 PM. Received a Letter from Mr Sutherland yesterday, and this day Packing by things to be ready to go to the Manetoba when he arrives. Men as usual."
" Tuesday Arrived at 3 PM 3 Carts of ours with Goods from the Forks. also our Hunters returned with 7 Buffalo, the wolves having eat 3 others, river in the morning full of floating Ice; at noon ran clear. Men at the coal kilns."
" Wednesday. Several Stone Indians arrived at both Houses but have very little: Peirish? Peltier came here from Pambina hills, says 3 Horses of his was stolen sometime back. Men as before."
" Thursday All hands quenching the charcoal kilns. Morn'g river full of floating Ice but at 11 AM ran clear. Ind. went back."
" Friday. Men as yesterday. a few Stone Indians came in with Dry provisions."
" Saturday. at 11 AM Mefs Finlayson, McKay & Loutit came here on horse back from the forks. Seven Days on their Journey with Six Carts. Mr Sutherland to remain at the Forks all winter: mostly Freemen who have brought up the Goods & paid at the same rate as last year 10/ pr 100 lbs. Our Men at the House as before quenching one Charcoal Kiln daily - there being Six in all."
" Sunday - Mr Finlayson to be Master at Beaver creek House with Mr McKay - busy opening and assorting the Goods for both places."
" Monday Sent away Six Carts to Beaver Creek well loaded with Trading Goods &c. Took Charge of the House from James Inkster who has been here all summer - Men at the Charcoal kilns."
" Tuesday Our 3 Gentlemen went away for Beaver Creek Ho. all on horse back - 2 Men mudding the Houses. our men from the Boats arrived here, having unloaded & hawled them out of the water at the Portage des Prarie; very fine weather. They have done very wrong in leaving the Boats so soon as very probably the River will not freeze over for some time & they might have got the Goods & Boats here by water. a considerable expense would have been saved in conveyg? them here - also the Boats would have been very useful next spring to carry down the property. obliged to engage Freemen to convey up all the property in the two boats at the rate of 6/6? for 90 lb. - as the Men behaved very badly in leaving the Cargo before the River froze over it would be nothing but just that the 2 Boats crews paid all the expenses of carriage from where they left the Goods to this place."
" Wednesday. Sent away 8 Carts: 6 to bring up the Goods from the Boats & the other 2 to carry provisions &c down to Mr Sutherland at the Forks - as it is a very bad place for living in winter, besides there are above? 20 persons there of all discriptions: told our men to hawl up the Boats well and pull all the grafs from about them that fire may not burn them in case the Grafs takes fire in the spring. Sent away the Men to Beaver Creek House who came up with & from the 2 Boats. Men here got mud to repair our chimneys; particularly the two new ones built this Summer which smoaks so very nuch there is no living in the House."
" Thursday The Men at home at work at the Chimneys, pulled down the new one nearly to the foundation - very fine weather."
" Friday. Some freemen & Indians came here with Dry prov. to Trade. the price agreed upon 15 lb pr skin in common cheap Articles - but 30 lb for Cloth Shirts, Kettles &c &c. Men finished the Chimneys. James Inkster & Charles Fidler making benches &c &c to carry on boat building here in Winter. - very fine Day - 3 Indians passed here for the Saskatchewan river who are relations of some of the Cos. Servants who have recently settled at Birsay 22 Miles above the Forks on the Assiniboyne river."
" Saturday Sent 2 Men to Tent & cut firewood & 2 Men to Saw boards for the new House above. others variously employed mudding. Strong wind Northerly, Swans flying to the Southward."
Nov. 1 1818
" Sunday 2 Canadians came from the Forks with 2 Carts."
" Monday Cooper & 3 Men getting Timbers for Boatsto build 2 here for the Company & 1 small one for James Inkster as he proposes settling at the Colony next spring - 2 Men repaird & heightened the Chimneys: heard the Packet from England out by our 2 Ships had reached the Forks - A Mr Williams came? out as Governer in Chief of the HBC? Territories the NW informed us."
" Tuesday Rain till 9 AM Men as yesterday getting Boats Timbers - 2 Mudding the Smiths Shop. The Men returned from the Boats with every thing and have well secured the Boats. Thomas Halcro Smith & Mr Dunnet came here they remained all the time in care of the Goods where our other men very impproperly left them. They have also broached a Keg of Rum & taken out 1/2 pint each man, all very wrong - it is said the Canadians & Murons were the first to propose it. a Few Stone Indians came in."
" Wednesday Men variously employed. Indians returned."
" Thursday at Noon 4 Carts & 3 Men came from Beaver Creek House & brought down 8 Horses traded there for the Colony. 4 Men finished the Smiths Shop, 3 with the Cooper at the Boats Timbers, 2 Men sawying - & 2 getting wood for them. Made 500 Candles for the Winter. others mudding the Houses & Chimneys - one Man constantly employed taking care of the horses - when two & two are chained & locked? together the Ind. cannot so well steal them expeditiously."
" Friday. Sent 3 Men away with the Hunter with Carts to get meat - James Inkster & one Man looking for pines for Boat Building returned but say they can find none fitting for the purpose - but we must have some should we go 30 miles off - others at the House variously employed."
" Saturday. Sent away 4 Men 4 Carts & Horses for Goods to the Forks & took down Dry provisions for Mr Sutherland as that is a very poor place, and requires considerable supplies from other places. - Much Ice driving in the River these two Days - Men variously employed."
" Sunday. Men returned from hunting with 4 Cows - a few Stone Indians came in to Trade Dry provisions - fine warm afternoon - some Ice still driving."
" Monday Sent 3 Men to get wood to saw into Sleds near the Moose Hills; 2 Men sawing boards. - 2 Cutting & hawling some firewood in carts - Smith & one Man daily employed in the Smiths shop making Tools &c - One of the Colonists Sons here (Murray) he is looking after our Horses - settled with the Hunter & again with Jn Lyons to kill us 50 Cows at 2 skins pr animal exclusive of what our prior engaged hunter may kill - to sent 2 men with each of them to bring the meat home to the Tents."
" Tuesday Men as yesterday - our Hunter informs me that there are good pine near the Pine fort near 20 miles off sent him & Charles Fidler to examine it & in the evening they returned, says there are plenty of excellent pine there to serve in Boat building many Years - very little Ice driving. two men constantly employed in making all the necefsary things for Boat Building - The 3 Men returned having found & cut down and barked enough to make 20 Sleds when sawn. also Cart shafts & made a saw pit - 4 NW Horses stolen."
" Wednesday. Men variously employed."
" Thursday. Sent away our 2 Hunters & 4 Men towards the Moose Hills The others sawying & other necefsary work."
" Friday. A Stone Indian came in with Provisions - There is a band of them about 120 Tents to remain about 40 Miles from this up the Sourie; they are now making a Buffalo pound. Cooper finished making Boats Tongs? - & other preparations for Boat building he will be daily employed about, other as before."
" Saturday. 2 Canadians came from the Forks and brought me a Letter from Mr Sutherland who says that he & the Colony are going to send a party of Men to the Mandan Villages on purpose to Trade Horses for the Colonists. & that he is sending one Man with some Goods to Trade what furs they may have. They are to pafs a new road by way of Fort Daer on purpose to take La Graill? a Canadian as Interpreter who has been remaining at the Mandan Villages many years & who has there a Wife & Children. Mr Archibald McDonald to accompany them. Several Stone Indians came here with Dry provisions and some wolves. also a few Crees accompanied them - Some of the Crees have lately been at the Mandan Villages. Men variously employed. - River clear of Ice except about the edges. Heard that Mr McDougall NW Partner died lately at Winnipic river."
" Sunday. The 2 Sawyers came for provisions & returned. Indians also traded & went away."
" Monday. 2 Men hawling firewood & others variously employed."
" Tuesday. Sent away 3 Men & 2 Boys with Carts & Horses to find our Hunters to bring home fresh meat - Cooper daily employed in making ready for Boat building; in the evening Thomas Fidler came from the Big Point house Mannetoba Lake - with a Letter from Mr Brown the Master there wanting several small articles to be made by our Smith. - very few fish to be got there now. he came in 2 Days a great distance at this season & carrying every thing on his back. he says there are 25 Men on the Manetoba establishment at 4 Houses. River froze over."
" Wednesday. Smith & 1 Man working & making a Pit saw neck - a saw set &c for Manetoba. Several free Canadians came here with Dry provisions to Trade 3500 lb & upward - in 7 Carts - The Mens employ as usual."
" Thursday. Traded with the Freemen: The Men returned from the Hunting Tent with 4 Buffalo - Smith making Awls for Beaver Creek Ho. The Freemen returned to their Tents."
" Friday Men variously employed - very badly these two Days."
" Saturday Thomas Fidler returned to Manetoba & sent Charles with him to fetch some of my property left there June 1817 - The Men variously employed.Sent Dry Provisions to Mr Brown."
" Sunday. Three Men & 3 Carts came from the Forks with some Goods & the Mens things left there before. They have been 7 Days coming up - Yesterday the NW here went ? ? killed 7 Cows skinned them & brought Them all home by 3 OClock. our Men says that 2 Men a Cart & Horse was to leave the Forks two days after them & to pafs by Manetoba with Letters for Cumberland House - They are expected here in 3 or 4 Days more."
" Monday Many Stone Indians came here & a few went to the Canadian house with Dry provisions - Men variously employed - Snow fell 4 Inches."
" Tuesday Men variously employed."
" Wednesday. The Stone Indians finished Trading & they all went away, One Man casting Ball in a Mold that casts 10 at once of sheet Lead as the Ball brought up is much too few for the trade here - having all the Athapescow Country to supply & the rest of the most distant posts. he cast 62 lb. two men getting firewood as usual. 2 Hawling home Boards for flooring."
" Thursday Clear & Calm and very cold. Men variously employed. & turned one of our Stables into a Store as ours are too small to contain every thing we expect to Trade this Winter. Mr Hefse? a NW Clerk came here from Riviere Qu'Appelle - he was sent to take charge of their post at River Winnipic where Mr McDougal died lately."
" Friday Men variously employed."
" Saturday. Sent 5 Men for Meat to the Hunting Tent. The others at the House employed about various Jobs. at 3 1/2 PM came here Mr Archibald McDonald & Pisk Kipling who left the Forks 10th Inst? & Pambina the 17th with 11 Men in all to go to the Mandan Villages. They had Horses & Carts with them but the Snow falling a good deal since they came away rendered travelling with Carts very bad. They came here for Dogs & Sledges &c. They left the remainder of their party 2 Days walk from this at the woods edge from Pambina. Mr McDonald complains bitterly of the very refractory behaviour? of some of the Canadian Servants who acompany him. Old La Grave? the Mandan Interpreter is obliged to be hawled the whole way being unable to walk. As only one of the Companys Servants have gone with them I intend to send another to Trade & bring here what furs they may Trade. They came here on Horseback."
" Sunday Our Men came home with meat."
"Monday Getting things in readinefs to send with the Mandan Party. also put by more Ammunition as what they have taken from the Forks will be too little if they have any tolerable quantity of skins - as the Colony people only go there to Trade Horses. Men at home variously employed."
Dec. 1 1818
" Tuesday. Laid the floor over the Cabbin: hawled home Boats Timbers - 19 Animals killed at the Hunting Tent since they first went there - put Grafs & earth over the new floor. Sawyers came home yesterday having finished for the present. Some freemen came here with Dry provisions to trade - Our 3 Men returned from the Forks with a Horse & Cart & some Goods. not having been at the Manetoba Charles Fidler & 1 Man returned from Manetoba with my things: The french Hunters went away to Tent & Hunt. they have like us two hunters employed. they are near 70 of all ages & Sexes."
" Wednesday at 10 AM Mr McDonald & Pisk returned with 10 Dogs. 4 Sleds to join their men & goods they left 2 days Journey from this. I also sent one Man with them with 80 lb of Ammunition & some other articles. They are to send here by Freemen the Carts and Horses they had with them from Pambina. 2 Men sawying Boats Timbers. Sent one Man to bring home our Horses, to be ready to go to where we intend getting pines for Batteaux building about 18 Miles off. Smith daily employed at his duty; others variously employed."
" Thursday. Sent away 4 Men with 4 Carts & Horses loaded with Trading Goods for Beaver Creek House, also sent Letters by them for Cumberland House & the Athapescow Country.- also sent away James Inkster & 6 Men to cut down, collect & saw wood for Boat building. also sent Charles Fidler on horse back to shew them the place where the Wood is growing - at Dusk he returned - The Freemen returned to their Tents - only 3 Men now at the House. fine weather these two Days."
" Friday. Put up some shelves &c in the House; a few Stone Ind. came here with Dry provisions - Smith putting up a Cabbin for himself in the Indian Guard room. Wm Dunnet came here for his Shirts &c? he is to go direct to Carlton house where Mr Cook resides on purpose to run to Indian tents."
" Saturday. Traded with the Stone Indians & they remained the whole Day which is rather unusual - as they generally go back the next day. 3 other bands of Stone Indians & Crees also arrived at our house which is a very busy day - they have some furs with them & a considerable quantity of Dry Provisions. Anderson & his Son hawling home firewood in Carts as there is now very little snow on the Ground - Strong wind West & Cold."
" Sunday. The Stone Indians all Traded & returned - The Crees remain here yet: received Letters from Beaver creek - it is said the NW imtends next spring to build close to us at Beaver Creek & abandon their House at Qu'Appelle as the Indians are so very troublesome to them every summer when they are alone - they have also lately had many Horses stolen & besides their Men refuses to Summer again at their old place."
" Monday. Sent 2 Men for boards lately sawn for Sleds. A Stone Indian came in with provisions. - our 2 Wood cutters came home & to remain here and to go from here daily to cut firewood. Bad snowy weather - Two freemen with their families came here from Beaver creek House on their way to the Forks. Men at home employed about the House."
" Tuesday - Smith finished making his Cabbin - Charles put up his & the Cooks. 2 Men came here with the Keels for three Boats & other wood from the Pines about 18 Miles off. Men as usual."
" Wednesday. Several Stone Indians came here with a deal of dry provisions - not a single one went to the NW House - Sent men away for more Boat wood left the Carts here as the Snow is now too deep to make good us of them. Smith employed at his duty. The 2 freemen went to the Forks & sent by them some things to Mr Sutherland he wanted. Bad weather at night & Strong Gale at WNW."
" Thursday. Indians Traded and all went away - Smith making Indian Awls."
" Friday. Cleaned out the warehouses & put all the Beat Meat in bags - in the evening James Inkster returned from the Pines having got wood enough cut down for three Boats. 2 Men constantly sawying the Logs into Boards for the Boats. Some men came home with boards."
" Saturday Men employed variously about the House & sent more for wood. Poitras Son returned from Swan River."
" Sunday Vast numbers of Buffalo within sight of our House. very cold weather these Days past which has driven the Buffalo to the river for shelter at the Woods."
" Monday. 2 Men making Sleds - 2 cutting firewood & Smith at his duty. Charles Fidler killed 2 Buffalo near here."
" Tuesday. Sent for the Meat killd yesterday - 2 others hunting 2 Men making Sleds - our 2 Men killed nothing - a Freeman pitched away to hunt Buffalo."
" Wednesday. Turned 9 Sleds. Angus McAwley badly - an Indian came here from Cree Tents for both parties to fetch some provisions & a few Skins - neither side will send - as we shall get their property cheaper when they bring it to the Houses. Men came home with Boards from the Sawyers Tent 18 Miles off - Smith making some necefsary tools for the Carpenter or Boat Builder - Some of the Crees are lately gone to the Mandans to Trade Horses and to carry back to his Friends the Hair of the Mandan lately killed by the Stone Indians when three of them was on a visit to the Cree Tents - The Stone & Mandan Indians are always at war with each other - Charles & the Smith also cleaned all our new Guns - got home the last of our sled wood."
" Thursday. Three men sawing Sleds. 2 Men hewing Boat wood - Sent 2 people to bring home meat from the Hunting Tent. one of the Hunters came here & says they have killed 56 since they went away first to Tent."
" Friday - Men variously employed."
" Saturday Mens employ the same, Yesterday one of the Free Men came here and says that before Mr McDonald & Pisk got back to where they left their property; That all the Men had returned back to Pambina & left all the property behind them - but that one of our Indians had found the whole which he safely delivered back to Mr McDonald - and that Mr McDonald had engaged a Freeman & one Indian to accomp'y him & our 2 Men - to the Mandans, but that 2 days after the Indian returned & the 4 people proceeded there with all the Goods nearly. The Indian has it in care & will soon either send or bring it here to our House - Mr McDonald agreed with the freeman to give him a Horse, a Gun & a suit of Clothes before he would consent to accompany them."
" Sunday Sent 2 Men to look for our Horses & only found a part of them."
" Monday. Sent 4 Men with 5 Sleds for Boat wood. found the rest of our Horses. 2 Men hewing boats Timbers Stems &c ready to split with the Pit saw. Two Crees came here with 44 MB a very good trade for this part of the Country."
" Tuesday Sent 2 Men away for Boat wood, in the afternoon the others came home who went away yesterday."
"Wednesday. The Men returned with Boards & sent away others to fetch more. at 1 PM Mefs Finlayson & Loutit came here from Beaver creek House - They are both going down to the Forks the former on a visit to Mr Sutherland the latter to remain as his Clerk all winter - our Hunters came home for the Holidays."
" Thursday. Men came home with boards - Smith repairing Axes for Beaver creek House. The men at home variously employed."
" Friday Gave the Men 12 lb fat & 10 Tongues & 1 pint rum each."
" Saturday Mefs Finlayson, Loutit & 2 Men went away to the Forks. sent all our men to the Hunting Tent for meat. at 5 PM Mr McDonald & Party came here from the Mandans where They remained 6 days. and was as usual very hospitably used by them, they brought back 10 Horses & 166 Beaver skins of sizes also a few foxes. - They were 8 days on their Journey back. They learn from the Mandans that the nearest American was 300 Miles below but next spring they were intended to go up and settle at the Mandan Villages - our people only was at the upper village - but the furs traded part of them were brought to them to Trade - They are very dear with their Horses. having cost them about double the price they are got for in this river. There were 44 Houses in the Village."
"Sunday. Men came home from the Hunting Tent with meat - took an account of what little property they brought back here also the Furs &c &c. Tom Fidler came from Manetoba yesterday."
" Monday. Mr McDonald & Pisk went to the forks. they are soon to send up for the Horses - sent away 6 Men to fetch home Boat Wood: Thos Fidler returned to Manetoba - at 4 PM 2 Men came here with Letters from the Governor in Chief at Cumberland House - they inform us that there is a very great scarsity of dry provisions in the Saskatchewan river owing to great quarrels amongst the different tribes of Indians, and for us to purchase & encourage the Indians in this Quarter to make what they can."
" Tuesday. Two Men hewing staves for a cask about 140 Gallons on purpose to Salt Buffalo Tongues and meat in - Cooper making? molds for the Boats timbers - our 6 Men came home with Boat wood - Told Henderson & Michel a Canadian to make ready to take dry provisions to Mr Sutherland at the Forks."
" Wednesday. Sent 4 Men to fetch more boards - Michel could or would not catch one of his Dogs so this day was lost in sendg? men to the Forks - Men home variously employed."
" Thursday. Sent away Henderson & Valiere? to the Forks with dry meat to Mr Sutherland, Michel a half breed canadian who I had appointed, refused to go - so I put him off duty. and he will soon go away to join his relations the freeman who is tenting near here - he is well away as he had a woman & Children - Some freemen came in with Dry provisions. Our Sawyers came home for New Years Day - 4 NW men came from Riviere Qu'appelle yesterday. - Two of our men came here with our grindstone from Beaver Creek House. - Thumby? with several Crees and Stone Indians came into the House with furs & provisions: Traded with the freeman & he returned. Gave all the Indians a big Keg Liquor amongst them as a present."
Jan. 1 1819
" Friday Men did nothing, gave then 1 pint rum each & a share of all the little European Douceurs? &c at this House - Most of the Indians Traded and went away. Thick snow in the forenoon."
" Saturday. All the Indians Traded and went away - Michel & his family went away & Germain Mongense? also accompanied him - he ran away - he is an indifferent hand at the Horses - so the service will be rather against than loosir? by both of them going away - Sent 2 Men to look for the Colony Horses left here lately by Mr McDonald. Men cleaning about the Yard & House - found all the Horses."
" Sunday. Our Hunters returned to their Tents. in the afternoon several Cree Indians came here & paid part of the little Debt they were due us - They had a good Trade in furs considering the part of the Country & the laizy habits of the Indians."
" Monday. 2 Sawying Boats Timbers, 4 went to the hunting Tent for meat: in the evening traded with the Indians."
" Tuesday. Indians went away. Men as yesterday & the Men came home with meat. Some more Indians came in with dry provisions."
" Wednesday. The Indians traded and went away: Sent 4 Men for Boat wood & the 2 Sawyers went there to finish? all the logs that is required for finishing building three Boats. Charles Fidler making sleds - One Man and a boy daily employed hawling firewood. These short days & the wood so far off that they only make three trips pr Day - Women cut out & sewed 69 Pemican? bags these 3 Days - Men came home with Boards."
" Thursday. Yesterday the Smith began to make Batteaux Nails for Beaver Creek & will not be employed about any other duty till they and:the Nails & Boat Iron work required for the three Boats - he only makes 164 on an average daily - a Cree & Stone Indian came here, the latter had something the Cree nothing - they slept half way from their Tents."
" Friday Men variously employed."
" Saturday Men came home with boards. others as usual."
" Sunday at Noon Mefs Finlayson & Todd arrived here from the forks 6 Days on the Journey. the Doctor is going to Beaver Creek House to get what horses he can traded there by us for the Colony. two of the Colony men also came here for their Horses left here by Mr McDonald they had from the Mandans with them - what they have stood the Colony in is upwards of 10 ? each exclusive of the Mens wages for the Time - very bad weather in the afternoon."
" Monday. Sent 4 Men to the Hunting Tent for Meat. Cooper making a large Cask to salt meat in. at 4 PM Jo. Haywood? & one Man came here from Manetoba Lake for Provisions. They have nothing to eat; - Two Indians also came here yesterday - No Indians about the Big Point house - Old Kipling from Big Point hunting this way buffalo:"
" Tuesday. Men came home with meat - Indians returned."
" Wednesday Early this morning Mr Finlayson & Todd went away to Beaver Creek House and two Men - Sent 4 Men to fetch home boards."
" Thursday. Sent back the two Men to the Manetoba with Provisions to Mr Brown. Men came home with boards. Men at home variously employed at their respective Duty."
" Friday. The two Colony men went to the Forks with the Horses Traded at the Mandans. Sent 2 away for Meat & 2 to bring home boards. others as usual."
" Saturday Several Indians came here with some furs & provisions Men as before. Men came home with boards & Meat."
" Sunday Traded with the Indians."
" Monday. Sent 4 Men for meat. Fannier & his 2 Sons came here with 978 lb Dry provisions. James Inkster put the first boat on the stocks. Others variously employed."
" Tuesday The Freemen traded & returned to their Tents about 16 Miles off: a few Stone Indians came here with dry provisions - also got some dry provisions from another freeman - at 11 AM Mr Robert Kennedy & Henderson arrived here from the Forks - the former came from England last spring? & was left at Point Muron by Capt Mathey in the Summer & walked from Rain Lake on the Ice - Valiere? & Pisk gone to Pambina for Salt for us here. Thermometer at Sun rise 42 Degrees below the Cypher. Men variously employed."
" Wednesday. Sent 3 Men for Boat one - one Man badly. Henderson hawled home wood, I heard that Bonneaus & Fanniers Sons had take away some Iron hoops left by Mr McDonald in care of the Indian who found & took such good care of their property when the men ran away and left it - but they both deny having taken any - Others here at their duties."
" Thursday. Our Sawyers came home having finished saw'g all the wood there for the Three Boats - Smith constantly employed making nails for Beaver Creek Batteaux."
" Friday. The Sawyers splitting some of the thick plank brought home into boards for the Boats others variously employed."
" Saturday. Cooper put one tier of Boards round the first Boat. Henderson assisting him. Men as before."
" Sunday Yorstons Guide the french Chief & several Indians came in - but have little with them - he is quite dissatisfied with the NW as they only gave him a 2 Gallon Keg Rum when he fully expected a big Keg. - also several Crees & Stone Indians came to our House with provisions & a few furs; salted 450 Tongues in the Big Cask - Busy trading with the Ind."
" Monday. Finished trading with the Indians. Cooper & one Man constantly employed at Boat building - 2 Men sawed 2 Sleds - 4 pulling Oakum. bad weather."
" Tuesday. Indians went away - Sent 4 Men to the Hunt'g Tent - Yesterday 2 Men came here from Riviere Qu'Appelle or? Beaver Creek for Goods. 1 Man sawying. Smith repairing Axes for our House above."
" Wednesday. Bad snowy weather one Man splitting Iron with the Smith. men pulling Oakum."
" Thursday Sent back the 2 Men to Beaver Creek House with as much Goods as their Dogs could hawl also sent Letters for Cumberland House. also sent 4 Men to the Hunting Tent for Meat. finished casting the last of the old sheet Lead into ball brought from the Factory this summer as the Ball from England were too few & the most distant places served first."
" Friday Men came home with meat from the Hunting Tent. generally bring one Buffalo with 3 Dogs - 2 Men at Boat build'g & put down posts to carry on building another. Some Stone Indians came to Trade."
" Saturday. Sent 4 Men for Meat - Some Canadians came to the NW House here from their House at the Manetoba starving yesterday sent away two men to cut down 650 Stockades, these with the 500 we had cut some time back will serve to surround our buildings - at 4 PM one of the Men came home & says Benj. Gun has cut his leg severely with an ax - sent a Sled & Dogs to convey him to the House: at 7 PM he got here - I hope he will be able to work again in 3 weeks."
" Sunday. a few more Stone Indians came in with Provisions."
Feb. 1 1819
" Monday. Indians Traded and went away. also a few Crees came in with provisions. Men came home with meat from the Hunting Tent; others at Home variously employed. sent one Man in place of he who got his foot cut to cut down Stockades - they take a weeks provisions with them."
" Tuesday Hendersons woman delivered of twin Girls a circumstance rare in this country. both are very promising Children. Several Stone Indians came in all to our House. They have a considerable number of Wolve skins with them."
" Wednesday. 3 freemen came here with 2600 lb Dry Provisions - also one Indian accompanied them with some more dry provisions - The Stone Indians returned and some others arrived with Provisions &c. at night a severe quarrel between the Cree Indian & one of the Freemen - the freeman was much cut with a hatchet & the Cree left for Dead by frequently jumping on him - Men variously employed."
" Thursday - The Indian this Morning appears as if nothing had happened to him - The Freeman will soon be well - they all traded & returned to their respective Tents. Women made 60 More pimmican bags. - Sent 3 Men & 2 Boys to the hunt'g Tent for meat - Our Hunters are now doing but little but the NW ones still lefs which is one consolation That our neighbours dont do so well as ourselves. Traded 9 Dogs from Inds to help home with our meat. 2 Men came from our House at Beaver Creek."
" Friday. Many Stone Indians came in with Provisions - our Men & boys came home with meat from the Hunting Tent."
" Saturday. Sent one Man & 3 Boys for Meat. Indians all traded and went away. The 2 Men cutting stockades came home for Provisions - They have cut down 550 & part of them collected in heaps."
" Sunday Sent away 4 Men with dogs & Sleds to Mannetobaw Lake for 8 Kegs Rum taken there for us by the Manetoba people last summer. The 2 NW hunters left off their employment & will hunt no more - they agreed for 2 skins each animal the usual price, but when they wanted part payment for what they had killed they only received lefs than what was originally agreed upon. The NW has but little fresh meat in their House here - very warm weather almost every day."
" Monday. One of our Hunters came home with some fat & Tongues he Traded. Jn Lyons our other hunter killed 8 Cows Yesterday & cut them & laid them all up well. it was past midnight before he finished. Gun who cut his leg daily pick'g Oakum. Two people constantly employed Boat building - 2 Men as before falling, collecting & hawling Stockades, roofing sticks & several other things to the River edge to raft down in the Spring; the other men variously employed."
" Tuesday. One Man & 4 Boys went to the Hunting Tent for meat. Mens employ as before."
" Wednesday Our Men returned from the Hunting Tent with 8 Dogs & 3 Horse sleds loaded with meat. hung up the salt Tongues to dry. One man making a Carriole others as usual."
" Thursday at 2 PM Mefs McKay & Todd with 2 Men arrived here from Beaver Creek. They left there with 8 Horses traded for the Colony but the 2d evening from their House, they lost the whole of them. Next day they serched till near night - they suppose the Stone Indians have stolen them - Jn Rofs accompanied our people from Beaver Creek. he has this winter walked all the way from Oxford House - he was for the Colony last fall. but refused Mr Laidlaw so he was put off duty by him. Men at the House at their respective duties."
" Friday Salted the Large Cask of Tongues, Bosses? and other fresh meat. - Old Kiplings wife came here & one of her sons from the Manetoba hunting Tent, They are killing very few Buffalo there. Mr Brown is now down at the Forks on a visit to Mr Sutherland. Men as before."
" Saturday Mr McKay & 2 Men went for Beaver Creek house with Trading Goods - also Mefs Todd & Jn Rofs to the Forks - Charles Fidler & Henderson getting Boats timbers as those got in the fall are to few. Gun as usual pulling Oakum - one with the Smith occasionally splitting Bar Iron & drawing it into rods for the purpose of Nail making - Our Men return in the evening from Manetobaw with only 7 Kegs Liquor - the other two Mr Brown who had just returned from the Forks had detained by Mr Sutherlands order - as I believe we shall have enough now for the Spring Trade. first heard that Mr Glen? Robertson was made Prisoner by Mr Black of the NWC at the Athapescow Lake last fall - we do not learn any reason for so doing. and that Mr Sutherland had dispatched from the Forks to Rain Lake 2d Inst Letters received from our people relating the affair - they are expected to reach Montreal before the rivers break up of Ice."
" Monday One Man & boys hawling meat home every other day from our hunting Tent - 2 Men always employed at the Stockade & hawling - 4 Men getting ready to carry Dry provisions down to Mr Sutherland at the Forks. The NW Athapescow Packet arrived here - so ours has a fortnight start of theirs - Men at their respective Jobs."
" Tuesday. Men variously employed about the House. Sent away 4 Sleds of Provisions with 4 Men to Mr Sutherland, as the forks is a very poor place for living, and the distance is great to hawl the Meat 30 or 40 Miles from beyond Pambina - That when the sleds are well loaded when they start first, before they reach the Forks they are very light, the Dogs requiring so much."
" Wednesday. Sent one Man & 4 Boys for meat - others at their respective duty. Benj. Gun now able to stir a little about - he has been & is daily employed pulling Oakum - several Cree Ind. came to the House but have little with them. Charles getting wood for two Tubs? - Cooper put Gunwails into the first Boat."
" Thursday. Indians went away. Jack Spense & 5 Men came here from the Forks. they are employed by Mr McDonell at the Colony to go to the Saskatchewan river to bring Horses for the Settlement that our people is to purchase for them - Jack Spense is manager & has at the rate of 3/ pr Day till his return the others 2 shillings - and all of their expense born - they expect to be hear about Middle of June & have with them near 100 horses. but I am doubtful that the Indians will plunder the greater part before they return back to the Forks. Bad weather in the afternoon. Man came with meat from the Hunting Tent, the boys rem'd there by bad weather."
" Friday. Benj.Gun now assisting the Smith in splitting & drawing out Iron into rods for nail making. Men as usual."
" Saturday. Men as before -1 freeman & his 2 Sons came here with near 700 lb Dry provisions. our Men & boys came home from the Hunting Tent with Seven loads meat one Buffalo ready on each sled the general load - Two Stone Indians came here."
" Sunday. Thumby & a few Stone Indians came here with Provisions - as he is a very good Indian I rigged him and gave him a Small flag: & a big keg mixt rum."
" Monday. 2 Men & 4 Boys went to Hunting Tent. The Indians returned - several Stone Indians came here with a deal of Dry provisions. One Man hawling home Charcoal for the Smith. others at their respective duties."
" Tuesday. Benj. Gun cutting firewood. Men & Boys came home with meat; Smith making rudder work for one Boat. and finish'd the first boat ready for the cealing - The Hunters left off hunting as I believe we have now enough killed to serve till June, if we get it all hawled home. They have killed for us since they went away in November 121 Buffalo - or 71 Cows & 50 Bulls."
" Wednesday Lyons returned to his Tent to kill Buffalo for James Inkster, James Anderson & Peter Henderson - to make dry provisions of as they talk of settling at the Colony in May next. Their families went with them to cut & dry it. - Sent 5 Men for Meat with all the Dogs & 4 Horses - Two of our men came here from Beaver Creek House for Goods - They inform me that 6 Horses out of the 8 that was lost when Mr McKay came down is found again - but that there are still two missing."
" Thursday. at 3 PM Mr Laidlaw, Pisk & 3 Men came here from the forks - Their Smith one of them - he is come up to make Nails &c in place of ours who is to go down to the Colony a short time to make Plow Irons for them as their Smith is not able to do it - an hour after our other 2 Men returned from the Forks who had been down with meat for Mr Sutherland. our men came home with meat - Mr Laidlaw is come here for some dry provisions for spring use before the rivers clear of Ice - to enable them to keep plowing &c &c."
" Friday Some Stone Indians came in with Dry provisions - These two Days Charles Fidler & Benj Gun Sawying wood for the Boats - Traded a Horse from a Stone Indian. Men went to Hunting Tent for Meat."
" Saturday. Made 16 Bags Pimmican 1660 lb for the Colony. The Stone Indians traded & went away - Men came with meat. a Cree came for us to send to his Tent 8 Miles off for 6 Cows he has killed for us."
" Sunday. Poitras the Canadian Master here came over & told me that they had 2 Men from Pambina on Friday last & had brought up news from York in upper Canada; he says that all the tryals are over there - and that the two Companys are very agreeable together - but that the Athapescow & Fort William Businefs is not yet settled - all the rest amicably particularly what relates to the Colony - These matters I cannot believe & we must not believe every thing we hear from the Canadians above all other people."
Mar. 1 1819
" Monday. Sent 6 Men to the Indian Tent for the 6 Cows & in the evening they returned with them - all traded for Rum - about 7 d? each at Invoice price - one Man came home from the Hunting Tent with 2 Horse sleds of Meat. The Colony Smith began to make Nails & only finished 200 with great difficulty altho' he told me before he began that he could easily make 600 pr Day."
" Tuesday. Our Smith with & 2 Colony men went for the Forks with 9 Bags pimmican. sent 2 Men to the Ind. Tents & they traded 2 more? Buffalo & came home - our Mens women came here having dried a good deal of Meat for themselves as they talk of settling at the Colony. got home the Last of our fresh meat."
" Wednesday at 3 2/3 AM Self & James McIntosh with a Cariole went to the forks on a visit to Mr Sutherland. Mr Laidlaw also accompany us and Pisk Kipling who has a load of Provisions for Mr Sutherland. overtook the Men who went away yesterday at 3 PM & put up in company 7 Miles short of the Bad woods a little before Sun Set - left James Inkster in Charge of the House. - The men to get charcoal burnt & Ice cut to lay by our spring stock of Meat in our Ice house. snow at times in the Day - put up at 5 PM."
" Thursday Left our encampment at 4 2/3 AM - and left Pisk & the loaded sled at Bad woods - where we met 5 Manetoba Men going to the Pine Creek for meat - at Portage des Prarie met 7 Colony men going to Brandon House for Pimmican as the Buffalo has all left near Pambina - wrote a few Lines to James Inkster to make Pimmican for them and load them well - put up 12 Miles below portage point at 7 PM. several of the freemen who were hunting for the Colony have large quantities of Meat on their stages, but as the Buffalo are gone far away they demand above double of the usual price. - I hope soon the Colonists will be able to have plentiful crops & stand in little need of the assistance of the Freemen."
" Friday - at 3 1/2 AM we left our encampment and reached Birsay at 11 AM where we remained one hour and got breakfast - arrived at Mr Sutherlands at the Forks at 6 1/2 PM. - all well - but little Provisions."
" Tuesday. at 3 1/2 AM left the Forks with McIntosh - & put up in our old encampment insight of the Portage point at 7 PM - stopped at Birsay an Hour & got breakfast; The freemen there had all come in from the Buffalo, having laid up a Good stock & some of them are moving to the spots they intend to build at: Mr McDonald & Laidlaw went away yesterday from the forks with a boy. They intend going to see Mr Brown, but would not acquaint us that we might have written to him - The boy accompanies us tell he meets their people coming with Provisions from Brandon House. cold weather for this season."
" Wednesday. at 3 1/2 AM got away & reached Musk rat Creek at 10 3/4 - left it at 12 & only got to the Bad woods at Sun Set where we put up. found here 2 of the Manetoba men going to their hunting Tent - Snow most part of the Day which detained us much."
" Thursday at 2 AM we started all in company & stoped 1 1/4 hours for Breakfast at 7 AM pafsed the Pine Creek at 3 PM. before this met 3 Canadians going to the Forks with another Packet from the Athapescow - parted with the two Mannetoba Men 3 Miles East side Pine Creek - arrived at Brandon House at 8 3/4 PM - very cold weather in the evening - some Stone Indians had been in during my absence - met the Colony men 1/3 of the way from the Pine creek to the Bad woods loaded with Pimmican 23 Bags. the men at the House empd abt making Charoal."
" Friday. Smith daily making Nails - The Cooper has got 3 stroaks? round each of the other two & last Boats - The Men has got half our Ice to put in the Ice House to preserve the meat in the Summer. This day 3 Men and a boy came from Beaver Creek House - two of them is to go to the Forks with Provisions and the other to return with Goods to Beaver creek. They started with 7 Horses to bring here for the Colony but one fell by the way the 2d Day (they have been 7 Days in coming) & another left 10 Miles from this House. - Our Men here all busily employed in getting wood &c for Charcoal."
" Saturday Mens employ the same & got Ice out of the river. a few Indians came in but have very little. the 8th Inst 6 Sleds of Colonists came here for more dry provisions."
" Sunday. All the Indians returned except one Tent."
" Monday Put the Colonists to work to make Pimmican - Yesterday McIntosh & our hunter brought here our 2 Carts from the Hunting Tent. 2 Men still hawling out Stockades &c &c to the rivers edge - made 13 bags Pimmican - All hands put Ice into the Ice House - except the Tradespeople. on Saturday sent 2 Men with provisions to Mr Sutherland; stowed by all our meat - 2 Indians came here but have very little."
" Tuesday. The Colonists returned with their Sleds well loaded of Dry provisions - to enable them to continue their farming before they can receive supplies by water from Pambina or this River. 2 Crees came here with a few furs - men variously employed & one Man cutting down 100 Stockades more that we may be certain of having enough. McIntosh badly."
" Wednesday McIntosh pulling Oakum. one Man with the Smith drawing out Iron for Nails - 2 Indians came here they have very little - all the Stone Indians that Traded here this winter have filled their pound full having got into it near 1400 Buffalo - They have gone to the N side this river 1/2 way to Beaver Creek House. very cold weather these several days past. the other men employed about the Charcoal making."
" Thursday Smith & McIntosh drawing out Iron into rods for nail making. sent one Man to assist the other 3 in cutting wood for building roofing sticks &c - & 2 is constantly employed in hawling them out."
" Friday 3 Canadians came from the Forks & Mr Provencher the high priest accompanied them up. he sleeps at the Canadian House but to get all his victuals here - he soon came over after his arrival & got Dinner - but as this is Lent, we luckily have 4 Jackfish in the House - we shall accomodate him in the best manner the place can furnish him - The Canadians have brought up 3 Kegs of rum. - also received a Letter from Mr Sutherland informing that Mr McPherson a Canadian & Indian Lad were drownded last month at Rain Lake in crofsing the river in a Canoe near a fall where it did not freeze - by the Canoe upseting. McPhersons body was found next day - The Athapescow packet of ours left that House 2 Days before he was drownded. - a Cree arrived here with 38 MB in good furs. The best Hunter we have seen this year. Men as before attending coal making - we lighted the Kiln on Tuesday."
" Saturday. Men's employ as before. very cold weather."
" Sunday. Mafs said at French House, some of us attended, all the freemen nearly with their wives and Children; 25 Children baptised and he said prayers twice afterwards. so this was a very busy day with him there were upwards of 140 present of all ages & sexes - he dined & supped here as usual - supplied him in several things for his Journey to Riviere Qu'Appelle in the eating & drinking way. wrote letters to Mefs Finlayson & McKay to treat him in the best manner they were able -"
" Monday. The Priest & 7 Canadians went to Riviere Qu'Appelle. Set 2 Sawyers to cut boards in case we require a Batteaux building to carry down the Provisions & Furs traded here in addition to our two new Boats built here - 2 Men hawling out Stockades &c to the rivers edge. 2 Men attending the Charcoal Kiln - one Man with the Smith & 1 with the Carpenter 2 Hawling wood 2 cutting it; all busily employed - The Canadians have taken up with them 3 kegs rum they brought lately from the Forks - All the Freemen & families returned to their Tents - They are all directed to go down with their families to the Forks, but as that is a poor place for living, some of them demur. Traded a few good furs from one of the freemen."
" Tuesday. Men as yesterday - The Women made 1704 Candles weighing 325 lb to take down for the use of the low Country as it is quite unecefsary to have Candles from England: Thumby & 2 other Crees came in but have very little with them. he brought back two Horses stolen by the Stone Inds. last fall from here - but obliged to pay him more than their original cost."
" Wednesday. Quenched the charcoal Kiln & find there is not 1/3 of it burnt, owing to none of our people understanding the businefs - Men as before - The Men came home having finished hawling all the stockades, roofing sticks, reef? poles & other wood to the river edge ready to raft down in the spring."
" Thursday. a very bad snowy drifting Day - men employed picking Oakum - Smith & Carpenter at their respective duties."
" Friday. at 9 M our 2 Men who went down with provisions to Mr Sutherland returned - one of them has got both his feet froze this morning owing to his not drying his Socks. The Men cutting more wood for Charcoal."
" Saturday. Sent 2 Men down to the forks with 700 lb Dry Provisions on the 2 Sleds for Mr Sutherland as he is now obliged to support Mr Still & the People with him at Dead river. and no Buffalo is to be had at Pambina - Men finished piling the charcoal kiln & covered it & set fire to it - 2 Men const'y employed abt Boat building - one Man with the Smith drawing out Iron for Nails - put by goods to send to Beaver Creek House tomorrow. The 2 Sawyers helping to finish the Coal Kiln that we may be able to keep the Smith const'y at Nail Making &c &c. Traded a Horse from Thumby last night - we got the Horse left by Jn Favil at Moose hill lately."
" Sunday. at 1 PM Governor Williams arrived here from Cumberland House which place he left 1 Inst.? Mr Donald Rofs also accompanied him & three Men from Beaver Creek House; They came from our house at the Red Deers river direct to Carlton House up this River in 4 Days without pafsing by Swan River the usual route, but much the greater distance: One of our Men returned I sent away yesterday says the Snow is very deep - & wishes to have some to accompany them. Sent two Men to bring all our horses home from above in case the Stone Indians steal them as many are Tenting up above them."
" Monday Sent the Man back again to take the provisions to the Forks. also sent 2 Men away 4 Miles below the House out of the way of the Stone Indians. Two men sawying boards - one Man attending the Charcoal Kiln, one Man assisting the Smith to split & draw out Iron for Nails. Charles repairing a Carriole for the Governor as he soon intends going down to the Forks. James Inkster the Boat builder, & one Man constantly at that duty. others hawling firewood."
" Tuesday Mens employ as yesterday & the 2 Men who went with the Horses cutting firewood - Traded 2 horses from Ind. a 2 Gall Keg Leward Island Rum each. The 3 Men returned to Bea. Creek."
" Wednesday. at 9 1/2 AM The Governor in chief went away for the Forks, sent 3 Men with him - Mr Rofs also accompanies them. an Indian came here with a few furs. Charles Fidler assisting the Boat builder. The other men at the House variously employed."
Apr. 1 1819
" Thursday. Snow this Morning. men variously employed at the House. 2 still sawying."
" Friday The Indian who came here 31st Traded & went away - The Mens employ as before - The accounts brought by the Governor in Chief that up the Saskatchewan the Prospects for provisions are much more promising than in the Fall but that the Indians there dispute much amongst themselves and the Traders even apprehend danger to Summer at Hudsons House & they mean to abandon that place for the Season on that account. The Muddy river & Soxeau Indians here brought a good many Beaver skins to Trade last fall. - at an outpost from Edmondton Ho. of ours & the NW people - Some Stone Indians came in the day time to steal our Horses, when the Traders fired & killed one of them. The Indians returned the fire & shot one of the Servants thro the thigh - who then made the best of their way for the Houses? in the mean time the Indians stole the whole of the Horses belonging to both parties who then all abandoned the Houses? and went down to Edmonton House. In the afternoon Mr Provencher the Priest returned here from Riviere Qu'Appelle in company with some Canadians. he has baptized 15 Children there & 25 at this place & he desires all the freemen with their families will come down to the Forks this Spring. The NW intend build'g 10 Batteaux & our people 8 - They have got a large Store built? near us at Beaver Creek."
" Saturday The Priest dined here - Quenched the Charcoal kiln - very little coal - owing to none of our people understanding ? about it, by which much labor is uselefsly lost - Yesterday one Man came from Mannetobaw with ? to repair & a Letter from Mr Brown. They have got very little Trade there. the Smith repaired their Hatchets, Chisels &c. 3 Men employed at the Boat building & 2 sawying as usual."
" Sunday. The Free Canadian young Men came to hear Mafs but none of the Old Men Women & Children. Priest supped here - he intends going down to the Forks tomorrow in Company with 2 Canadians. he has got 3 Horses as a present from Mr McB? ? Partner at Riviere Qu'Apelle. Tom Kipling returned to his House with every thing he brought put in good repair."
" Monday. on Saturday one Man looking at the Horses all well Sent 2 Men to get Oak to Saw into Boards for the new gates of the Fort - 2 Sawying as usual. - 2 Boat building others variously employed. at 8 AM the Priest went for the Forks with 21? Canadians, wrote by him a Letter for Mr Sutherland."
" Tuesday. Ducks first seen, being late for the Season - Brought home all the Charcoal. only very little for the quantity of Wood piled up, owing to none of us understanding well the method. Got 10 Oak logs to saw into Plank for new Gates to the Fort - the sawyers came home having finished sawying the 40 Poplar logs for various uses. - Tyed up one fathom of Tobacco & sealed it & gave to Blindy, he with 4 others are going to the Mandan Villages - this Tobacco is sent as a present to the Mandan Chief. and also sent him word that at the Full Moon just after the Missourie freezes over which will be the beginning of December next we will send men there with Trading Goods and for all those who have any furs to barter to carry them to the upper village & there meet us - and in case the Americans should go to settle there this summer as reported they intend to do - for the Natives to meet us at the Dogs house hill which is nearly in the direct road from this House to their Villages. - Fitted out 2 Crees in every necefsary to go far up the Soorce to kill Beaver. Two of our people came here from Beaver Creek House with Axes to repair by our Smith - They say there is great plenty of Buffalo all along the Road - Made Lye for Soap - Smith as usual making Nails for the Beaver Creek Batteaux - Cooper put the Gunwails into the 3d new Boat - Rain in the evening - Snow still deep. The other men variously employed."
" Wednesday. 2 Men hawled home the Oak Logs for Gates &c. 2 Men sawying boats cealing at the house & Plank to make 2 outer Gates. 2 Men cutting firewood - Smith repaired the Hatchets for Beaver Creek House & nail making for them."
" Thursday. Sent & brought all the Horses home as the ground is bare of Snow in places and the Stone or other Indians may steal them - one Man attends them in the Day and all at night to be constantly locked up in the yard. The other men variously employed & 2 constantly sawying &c."
" Friday. at 10 AM our 5 Men & Halcro? the Smith returned from the Forks. the latter has been there 5 weeks making plow Irons &c the Colony Smith could not manage to make - receiv'd Letters from York Factory all well there - plenty of Deer but poor prospects of Trade - The Colony can now get very little provisions from Pambina - as the freemen seems to refuse hunting any more for the Colony - as they say they are not paid according to their agreement last fall. early this Morning the two people who came from Beaver creek returned with all the nails we had made, being sufficient for 9 Batteaux they have received in the whole - Left off hawling firewood as the Ground is now Bare in many places."
" Saturday. Our Smith making Nails & Bolts &c for our 3 new Boats built here. Sent away 11 Men to collect & pile up 7 Cords of wood to make more Charcoal as what we have will not be sufficient to to? finish? our work this Spring. They also finished covering it & was only absent 7 Hours - one Man remains at Home to Cook & take care of the Mens little property as several things are missing this winter, suppose to be stolen by the Indians. Yorstons Guide & 10 Other Indians arrived here on their way to the Height of Land towards the Mandan Villages for the purpose of Killing Beaver - they have nothing with them. Blindy who went to the Mandans a few Days ago by whom I sent a present of Tobacco & a Message to the Chief returned - having been only part of the way either fear or lazinefs or both was the cause of their sudden return - I got the Tobacco again."
" Sunday - Fitted out the Indians in Ammunition &c. they also got a Little Rum from here & the NW House to encourage them to exert themselves well in Killing Beaver - They only went 1/2 mile off before they finished the whole, when they all returned and was very troublesome to get more - sat up most part of the night on that account - Traded from them 2 Tents but only got one of them the other we are to receive 3 weeks hence. Yorstons Guide the NW Chief as usual was very troublesome. Hot weather."
" Monday. All the Indians except 3 pursued their Journey to look after Beaver. Finished sawying all the Gates - cleaned out the warehouses & took an exact account of all our Cloth Blankets &c? up stairs - Smith employed at his duty - 2 Men sleeps at the Coal Kiln to attend the burning of it. Charles & James disputed much - to send the former down to the Forks with Horses & to be out of the way - 2 Colony Men came here for Horses we have sold them for 5 £ each. the Horses all to be regularly lotted - The Indians stole my Thermometer last night - so cannot carry on the Meteorological Journal compleatly without it - Thumby our Cree Chief pitched away who has been here this long time - Lent him a Horse & Tent for a short time. Cleaned out part of the yard."
" Tuesday. Charles Fidler instead of going down to the Forks with 2 horses for the Governor & Mr Sutherland in company with the Colony men - went away to the Indian Tents & James Inksters woman left her Husband & followed him. Men at the House variously employed - Lotted all our Horses, the Colony is to have 10 of them; 6 Still remaining here."
" Wednesday. Sent away the 2 Colony Men & Smith with their Horses, also James Inkster sent his 4 Horses down in case of one of our Men who takes 2 Down belonging to us for the Governor & Mr Sutherland to ride on, being selected before the rest was allotted. - also sent a 10 Skin Tent down - as the Horses as usual every spring - so I expect they will be 6 Days on their Journey down to the Colony. - Yesterday & this Day packed furs in the Inner prefs - Laughing Man & 3 other Indians came here with principally Beat Meat, engaged an Indian & sent him away with Letters to Beaver Creek & the Elbow."
" Thursday. Traded with the Indians & they all returned. Packed 25 Bundles of Furs in the Large prefs and 4 more in the Inner one - being the whole we at present have in the House there is 6 2/3 Packs of Beaver Skins only - which is a precious article particularly in these parts. La pane came here Yesterday with Beat meat traded it for Rum? & again returned."
" Friday. Packed the last 4 Bundles of furs in the Large prefs - 29 at present in all - Smith & one Man making Rudder Irons for the Batteaux. - 2 Men finishing the Fur bundles - tyed up a bundle of Sayanapper? 1800 fathoms very useful for tying packages at the Factory to carry Inland - which saves a great deal of Money in hemp line - One Man making Soap daily - other men variously employed."
" Saturday. Early this Morning - found 2 logs broke down out of a Door way - that has been logged & plastered up then? 8 Years and on examining our Goods we find 7 yards of Red Corded Cloth & 2 Yards of white Baize missing, but nothing else - I strongly suspect that one of the People from the NW House has done it - I went over to the Master there to inquire about it, but could receive to satisfactory account. - 6 Brulees there he tells me is to go away to Riviere Qu'appelle tomorrow to assist navigating down their Batteaux - finished reeling, tallying & Marking our 29 Packs of furs already made - Sent away three of our Men with Carts & Horses near pine Fort 20 Miles below to hew & bring home Pine Oars - 2 Men constantly making the Necefsary Iron work for the Boats. - Cut nose an Indian came here with a Colony horse he has had in his care ever since the Colony Men early in December abruptly went back - he has taken great care of it for which I made him a suitable present for his meritorious conduct as an example to other Indians who find any thing belonging to us & who take good care of it will be rewarded. The Indian also brot here 10 pair of Snow shoe frames I told him to make in the winter - They will be ready for next Season - he very soon went back to his Tent - 5 or Six Canadian Brulees went from this to Riviere Qu'Appelle, they took several Horses and one Cart with them - Some few holes in the River Ice - The Maple Trees are now running well - but I expect this will be a scarse Season for Sugar."
" Sunday. Henderson went yesterday to the Indian Tents to bring home James Inkster woman, who lately ran away. she says she will never return to him again - tho' he has allways been very kind to her."
" Monday. Quenched the Coal Kiln - James Inkster & 1 Man caulking the small boat ready to crofs the river when it is clear of Ice - Smith repairing horse Irons. - English Lad came here & nearly paid all his Debt."
" Tuesday. Smith as yesterday. Carpenter & his mate Henderson caulking the small Boat & finished her - 6 Men made 52 Bags of Pimmican 80 lb each. at noon the river Ice floated past no rise scarsely in the water - many thick drifts of Snow still unmelted - hot day and windy."
" Wednesday. Men Made 52 Bags Pimmican - English Lad & family returned, gave him a small present of Rum & ammunition on account of nearly paying all his debt - Launched the small Boat & crofsed over the Indian & his family - There are now 7 Men remaining at the NW House. - Our 3 Men came home with 16 Oars & 2 Sweeps roughly chopped."
" Thursday. 2 Men brought home all the Charcoal. which I hope will be enough to do all our businefs this Spring - Made 50 Bags of Pimmican - Smith & one Man making Stem plates for the Boats. Cooper & 1 Man caulking one of the Large Batteaux - All the Ice seems to have pafsed - and the water is low for so soon in the Season & I fear we shall have great difficulty as well as lofs in getting down all the Provisions &c procured here & at Beaver Creek - In the afternoon the Indian I sent a short time ago to Beaver Creek returned - our people there has began to make their pimmican - the NW have already built there a good Store, & cut down wood for Stockades & hawling them home - The Indians within these 3 winters? while alone has been so very troublesome to them which occasions their removing close along? side us. Paid the Indian for tak'g up the letters to Beaver Creek - our people expects to leave there about the 7th or 10th of May. The Breast a Stone Indian Chief & band about 60 Tents crofsed the Rapid river about 30 or 40 Miles above here - They intend to make dry provisions & come here about the 10th May - Capt. Grant & 15 Bungees gone to the Mandans as friends."
" Friday. Carried up all the Charcoal - & 3 Men afterward at Oar Making. - Made 50 Bags more Pimmican - finished caulking & Tarring the 1st large Batteaux - the other men at the House variously employed."
" Saturday 5 Men as usual making Pimmican & nearly finished the last of our fat - we shall have beat meat here to make 100 Bags Pimmican yet & I hear they an over proportion of Fat at Beaver Creek, so I will write to bring it all down & have it mixed here; 3 Men making Oars. 14 young Stone Indian Men came here - and remained 4 Hours & went toward the Mandan Villages - I suspect they are going there to steal Horses or kill any straglers of them. They traded a Horse here with one of the Men - & a spark caught 1/2 pint powder he had got as part payment & burnt his Jacket & hair & other parts a good deal but not dangerous - gave them all a Dram & 4 Inches Tobacco each & I believe they belong to the Breasts Gang - but we are very badly off - not a single person being able to converse the least with them in their own Language & they understand no Cree."
" Sunday. Told 5 Men to get themselves ready to go down to the Portage des Praries to fetch one of our Boats up to carry down what will be left after loading the other 2 New Large Batteaux - They are to go there tomorrow in the Boat I am going to send down to the Forks with Provisions - as that is a poor place - & I expect they will have nearly expended all we sent them this winter & Spring. at 2 PM Thomas Fidler came here from Manetoba & says both ours & the Canadian Master there told him that both our Boats were burnt to ashes, that the Crew so very precepitately left last fall - so we shall be under the necefsity of building a Batteaux here - and have very little wood fitting for the purpose - but must be under the necefsity of taking up the flooring & partitions in the Houses - as the water & Season will not allow us time to saw new Boards or rather Plank. The Men behaved in a very improper manner in leaving them & Cargo, before the River entirely set fast - the weather? was so very favorable afterwards that they could have got the whole safely here & even a considerable distance farther if required. Thomas Fidler tells me they have at Big Point only 2 Packs of Furs. 3 at Mannetobaw - 2 at Halketts House and 8 at Fort Dauphin - They have lately got Beat meat & fat from the Indians sufficient to make 26 Bags Pimmican - so they will require no supply from us for their Summer Journey down & back from the Sea Coast - our winters hunter came here and as he is still due us a few Skins I agreed him to Hunt for this House during Summer. at 2 Skins pr Cow & 3 Loads of Ammunition."
" Monday. Strong Gale at SE & Hot. finished caulking our 2d & last large Batteaux - Sent 3 Men to get & bring home Batteaux Timbers also 4 others for all the Boards & Slabs at the Saw pit for the same purpose, and every exersion must now be made to get a Batteaux built as soon as pofsible before the water becomes too shallow. - Smith & one Man drawing out rods every scrap we can find to make Nails for her - as the Boards are very short 5 Lenths instead of 2. so many more will be required - 5 Bungee Men & 2 women who went away this Day fortnight? to kill Beaver towards the Mandan Villages returned here not having seen a single one. I believe fear put them back short of the place they intended to go to - The 4 others still behind have made Skin Canoes & are decending the Sourie but little is expected from them as they embarked below where the Beaver are - They say the Sioux have been tenting most part of the winter there & have killed the Beaver - but I suspect this is only told us as a cover to their fears. - and as an excuse for returning so abruptly. They only remained here 4 hours & went away to Join their families about a Days walk from here. Water rose 6 Inches these 2 Days - but this day stationary."
" Tuesday. Yesterday in the afternoon the Laughing Man & the Tobacco came here & brought back James Inksters woman to him. he gave them for their Trouble 1/2 a 10 Gallon Keg of Indian rum besides other things - Charles remains at the Indian Tents they came from this Day. - one of ours & 4 Men belonging to Mr Sutherland at the Forks came here, to assist & enable us to send Men up to help the Beaver Creek Batteaux down - They have been 5 Days on their Journey. James Inkster much wishes to go down to the Forks - but we cannot spare him till the Batteaux is made - Loaded the 2 Large Batteaux built here with 122 Pieces each - Men variously employed in working at the new Batteaux."
" Wednesday. at 8 1/2 AM sent down our 2 Batteaux with 3 Men each - as I fear they & the Colony will require provisions before we go down & we hear they have none at Pambina - report says that 2 of Mr Grahams men have been lately killed & plundered of their Goods by the Bungees of Leech Lake on our peoples return to the Sioux country from Fort Douglas. 4 Men constantly working at the Batteaux & 2 at Nail making for her - but have I fear even to little Iron to finish her. Took down the flooring above my room & partitions in the Guard room to make the Batteaux. 4 Men getting ready to go to Beaver Creek tomorrow as they wrote for them to be there 2d May. 3 Men made 9 Bags of Saskuttom & Hard? berry Pimmican & all the fat now used. frequent showers of rain."
" Thursday sent away this Morning Thomas Fidler & 3 Men to Beaver Creek House - 2 nail making - 1 Cleaned up the Warehouses - 4 Men at work at the Batteaux and nearly finished making her bottom? - water? rose 3 Inches these 2 days - Much rain in the night & 3 Inches Snow on the Ground this Morning - Thumby came here to leave some of his property. he says several Indians will be shortly at the House - to Kill Sturgeon which generally ascends about the 1st Week in May - Cold weather - strong wind at SW - snow all gone nearly."
" Friday - Mens Employ as yesterday. Rain at times & Cold."
May 1 1819
" Saturday Got 2/3 of the sides of the Batteaux done - water ris'd? a little - very cold weather. The last 4 & Yorstons Guide the Beaver hunters returned having amongst the whole only 10 skins - They say the Sioux have killed all the Beaver this Winter - but I believe its only a story of their own fabrication - as I think fear is the sole cause of their unsuccefsful return. Traded a Tent for Rum in the Evening - also one Otter & 1 Beaver - we have now not 3 Quarts of Liquor in the House. Smith employed at his duty."
" Sunday about Sunrise it began to Snow & continued till 10 AM when it became fair & fell 7 Inches. light winds at ENE - Jn Lyons one of our Freemen came here yesterday with some Beat Meat & fat to Trade."
" Monday - Many of the Crees & some Stone Indians pitched their Tents 1/2 mile off on North side the river - on account of firewood - they have nothing with them for Trade - gave them all a bit of Tobacco - they also asked much for Rum - Finished the Batteaux ready for Caulking - she is 35 feet long & 7 feet 3 Inches wide in the bottom - we have used upwards of 1000 Nails abt? her, the boards being 5 Lengths whereas they ought to have been only 2 - The other men variously employed about the House."
" Tuesday. Caulked & Fatted instead of pitching or Tarring the Batteau & all ready to embark tomorrow - Cold cloudy weather - Snow still on the Ground. - Water fell 2 Inches these 2 Days. In the afternoon - 3 Men & 2 Boys came here from Beaver Creek House with 15 Horses belonging to the Company and 4 Carts - The whole to go down to the Forks to remain all Summer to be ready to bring up Goods by Land. - They have been since 27th Ult. on their Journey - They also found the Horse left in February last & brought it here - They came away sooner than they intended. as a party of 14 Stone Indian young Men made a bold push 2 Days before to take away all the NWC Horses from 2 Men who was looking after them near the House - the people from the House saw this when they all immediately Sallied out armed & fired several shots at the Indians - they returned also several Shots, but at last all precipitately retreated. 2 of the Indians thought to have been then wounded - all the Horses were preserved. Our people expect to leave Beaver Creek 5th May - but they had still the 8th Batteau to build, the whole to caulk & fat - 120 Bags more pimmican to make - all the Dry Meat & Salt Tongues near 100 Bundles of 80 lb each & then? Packs of Furs & Buffalo robes to tye up. - 2 Men has lately returned from the Elbow - Mr Cook then ready to start for this place. - he is expected to Arrive with his 5 Craft at Beaver Creek House before our people leaves it - The NW are busily employ'd there in dragging down their Provisions ready to embark."
" Wednesday - Loaded the Batteau with Provisions & sundries about 168 pieces of 80 lb each - she draws 17 1/2 Inches water and at 1/12 PM sent her away with James Inkster, Mr Kennedy, & 3 Men - I was obliged to put in the 3d Man to assist in case she got aground to help to get her off again. - Water fell 2 1/2 Inches yesterday. - Sent some Goods to Trade Furs, Sugar &c on the Journey down - but this has been a bad season for Sugar making the thaw being so long beginning & then continuing so rapidly without frosty nights - The Breast a Stone Indian chief sent his paper? here for Tobacco - sent him one fathom - he & band are near the Rapid river coming down here - and have some dry provisions with them. This is the Chief I intend to send McIntosh a young Hand with to learn their Language as we have not a single person in the Service who can speak the Stone Indian Language - always being beholden to Indian women to act as Interpreters - which is never so trusty as our own people - he is a very active, Industrious Young Man & can write a little - we expect them here in a few Days."
" Thursday. Men at the House cleaning out the yard & about the Houses - Smith at his duty - all the Crees pitched near the House along with the rest - Charles Fidler came over here - I did not see or speak to him - wrote a Letter to Mr Sutherland at the Forks & Charles is to take it there tomorrow. he went back with the Indians & slept at their Tents. - one of our Men Anderson plowed? & sowed 2 1/2 Gallons Wheat. - we expect Wheat, Barley & Potatoes from Carlton House by Mr Cook. - Smith made us a new Drawing Knife. 2 Men constantly attending all the Horses - Thumby the Cree Chief pitched his Tent alone near the Stockades - all the rest of the Crees & Inds? some distance on the other side the river on account of firewood. Six NW men came from the Forks to assist down with the Craft. - a Freeman lately died at Pambina - he has been badly most of the Winter, getting much strained in wrestling with a Bear of last spring- before he killed it as he had no weapon nor even a Knife with him - The Buffalo are also far from Fort Dair - 2 Crees reported to be killed by the Sioux - All the Crees now here - and many Tents of Stone Indians - & we are few Men at the House - most all the Stone Indians from Qu'Appelle pitching down this way as they are afraid of an Attack from the Mandans and other Missouri Indians."
" Friday. Early this Morning Charles Fidler went with a Letter to Mr Sutherland at the Forks - sent by him One Horse to remain there - Men cleaning out the Inner Yard. - Strong wind at N. - Last night some Indians made a bold push to steal the Freemens Horses who are tenting about 12 Miles below this House but were all drove away without taking a single one. - There are now near the House Upwards of 150 Tents of Crees & Stone Indians."
" Saturday - 2 Men on hunting but returned unsuccefsful - altho many Buffalo are still near us. - Mens employ as before - Smith making 2 Locks for Boxes - several Buffalo crofsed the River in sight of the House. - Some freemen came here with Beat Meat. Traded with them and they returned - Most part of them intend going down to the Forks to see the Priests."
" Sunday. Strong wind these several Days at NE - water falling a little daily - Traded a few Drest Buffalo skins from the Ind. - Sent our Plow & Harrow to the NW to plant their Garden."
" Monday. Some of the Freemen pitched to the House - Sent 5 Men up to Grand Rapid to assist our Beaver Creek Batteaux men. The few at the House variously Employed, fencing a small Garden to sow seeds in."
" Tuesday. Fenced the Garden & sowed a variety of seeds - Tom Kipling came here yesterday from Manetobaw Lake - very windy weather daily."
" Wednesday. Men as before."
" Thursday. Mefs Finlayson & McKay arrived here, They have made a very large Trade in Provisions &c at Beaver Creek House. & the Batteaux 8 from there & 2 Boats & One Batteau with Mr Cook from the Elbow arrived in the afternoon."
" Friday. Took every thing out of the Batteaux & rubbed them over again with fat & loaded them again."
" Saturday All the Craft went away for the Forks."
" Sunday - Early in the Morning Self & Mr Finlayson went for the forks in 2 Wood Canoes - also sent 3 Men & 3 boys by Land with near 20 Horses - Mr McKay remains in Charge of the House & 4 Men with him."